NANODIAMOND AND NANO-ONION-LIKE
CARBON OXIDATION KINETICS
M. A. Trofimovich,
A. A. Galiguzov,
N. A. Tikhonov,
A. P. Malakho,
and A. D. Rogozin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 10, pp. 67 – 71, October 2015.
Original article submitted July 28, 2015.
Results are given for a study of the effect of treatment temperature on oxidation kinetics of nanodiamond par
ticles. Kinetic models are compared for oxidation by oxygen of nanodiamond powder previously heat treated
at different temperatures. It is established that depending on treatment temperature (600 and 1400°C) the ki
netic models of oxidation are different. For a specimen treated at 600°C the best model appeared to be two par
allel reactions. Oxidation of a specimen heated at 1400°C proceeds according to a model of a single-stage n-th
order oxidation reaction. Differences in kinetic models and oxidation reaction kinetic parameters are due to a
change in the nature and morphology of specimens, which is connected with nanodiamond transformation into
nano-onion-like carbon during heat treatment at a higher temperature.
Keywords: nanodiamond, oxidation, nano-onion-like carbon.
Currently carbon nanostructured materials are used ex-
tensively as modifying additives in preparing various carbon
materials for building, aerospace, and friction purposes. The
modification stage includes a combination of binding with
additive, for which carbon black [1 – 3], nanographene ,
carbon nanotubes [5, 6], nano-onion-like carbon, and
nanodiamond [7, 8] are used. Different properties of materi
als are improved in relation to additive used. For example,
introduction of nano-onion carbon to a carbon composite
material matrix makes it possible to increase strength, and re
duce linear wear of composites for frictional purposes .
During carbon material operation for different purposes
an important index is oxidation resistance. The temperature
at a friction surface of aircraft brake disks during landing in
planned and emergency regimes is 500 – 600 and
1300 – 1500°C respectively [10, 11], as a result of which in
parallel there are abrasive and oxidation wear. In this case a
critical role is played by the oxidation resistance of individ-
ual composite material components.
Oxidation of carbon materials is a heterogeneous process
proceeding at a solid and gas phase interface. The process
consists of the following stages [12, 13]:
1. Diffusion of oxygen molecules towards a carbon sur
face, i.e., an external diffusion stage.
2. Diffusion of oxygen molecules into the pores of parti
cles, into spaces between particles and planes, i.e., an inter
nal diffusion stage (this stage proceeds more slowly than the
external diffusion stage).
3. Physical absorption of oxygen by a carbon surface.
4. Chemical absorption (formation of an intermediate
C–O surface complex).
5. Surface complex decomposition.
6. Reagent product desorption.
7. Removal of gaseous reaction products from a carbon
surface into the volume, i.e., this stage is reverse diffusion,
separated into stages of internal and external diffusion.
8. Stages 4 and 5 of the process are limiting rates, and
this means determination of the kinetics reaction of a surface
It has been shown in [14 – 16] that physical absorption
of gaseous oxidizing agent molecules proceeds at active cen
ters of a carbon surface. At above 300°C physical absorption
is converted into irreversible chemical absorption of oxygen
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 56, No. 5, January, 2016
1083-4877/16/05605-0561 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGBOU VPO M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Mos
ZAO Institute of New carbon materials and technology, Moscow,
FKP Aleksin Chemical Combine, Aleksin, Tula Region, Russia.