ISSN 1063-0740, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2007, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 139–144. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text © V.V. Khalaman, A.Yu. Komendantov, 2007, published in Biologiya Morya.
The succession of fouling communities in the White
Sea is, by now, rather well studied [7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 26,
et al.]. However, despite the great interest demonstrated
by scientists with respect to the relationships of organ-
isms in such communities [3, 9, 19, 22, 29, et al.], the
White Sea fouling still remains beyond the conﬁnes of
such interest. On the other hand, knowledge about
interactions between different species is needed to
understand the mechanisms of the formation and func-
tioning of such communities, as well as the patterns of
the exchange of some species with other ones. The bulk
of population of fouling communities in the White Sea
is constituted, in most cases, by the bivalve mollusks
(Linnaeus, 1758) and
(Linnaeus, 1767) and a solitary ascidian
(Linnaeus, 1767). In this connection, the target of our
project was to estimate, in the course of ﬁeld experi-
ments, the mutual effects of
M. edulis, H. arctica
on their survivorship and growth rates.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The animals for our experiments were collected
from artiﬁcial substrates in Kruglaya Bay (Guba Chupa
Bay, Kandalaksha Bay, the White Sea), located close to
the Marine Biological Station of Zoological Institute
RAS. Selected animals were placed into cylindrical
cages 20 cm in diameter and 7 cm high made of thin
perforated plastic (the holes were 3 mm in diameter).
Into each of control cages we placed animals of only
one species, i.e.,
M. edulis, H. arctica
each experimental cage we placed animals of two
tested species, so that the biomass of one species was
twice greater than the biomass of the other one, as fol-
All the con-
trol and experimental cages were installed in sets of
three devices each, i.e., the total number of cages
The total biomass of animals placed into each of the
cages was approximately 300 g; the biomass of the spe-
cies placed in a smaller mass and the dominating spe-
cies were about 100 and about 200 g respectively; in the
control the biomass of the single tested species was
about 300 g. Such a large stocking density was due to
our intention that the animals should not avoid direct
contacts with each other. Prior to the experiments 30
specimens of each the species were numbered and mea-
sured (the specimens of
also were weighted).
were tagged with bee tags;
these were pasted onto the animals using a cyanoacry-
late cement. Mussel shells were numbered and tagged
using a dissection needle. In
only shell length (L, mm); in
shell length (L, mm), height (H, mm), and depth (D, mm).
The shell of
often has an irregular shape and,
depending upon particular environmental conditions,
can grow disproportionately in length, height, or depth.
To register the changes in the shell shape of this mol-
lusk and estimate the increments in all three dimen-
sions, we calculated a combined linear parameter as
Mutual Effects of Several Fouling Organisms of the White Sea
Mytilus edulis, Styela rustica
on Their Growth Rate and Survival
V. V. Khalaman and A. Yu. Komendantov
White Sea Marine Biological Station, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, 199034 Russia
Received November 30, 2006
—The mutual effects of several fouling species (the bivalves
a solitary ascidian
) on their growth rate and mortality were studied through ﬁeld experiments.
The interactions between
appeared to be the least antagonistic. In contrast, the mussel
was the most “aggressive” species with regard to both competitors. It was observed that the ascidians died,
because they were intensively braided and gummed up with the byssus threads of the mussels. However, in
some cases the intraspeciﬁc competition was stronger than the interspeciﬁc one.
: fouling communities,
Mytilus edulis, Styela rustica, Hiatella arctica
, growth, competition, White Sea.