Exchange between conformational states is required for biomolecular catalysis, allostery, and folding. A variety of NMR experiments have been developed to quantify motional regimes ranging from nanoseconds to seconds. In this work, we describe an approach to speed up the acquisition of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments that are commonly used to probe millisecond to second conformational exchange in proteins and nucleic acids. The standard approach is to obtain CEST datasets through the acquisition of a series of 2D correlation spectra where each experiment utilizes a single saturation frequency to 1H, 15N or 13C. These pseudo 3D datasets are time consuming to collect and are further lengthened by reduced signal to noise stemming from the long saturation pulse. In this article, we show how usage of a multiple frequency saturation pulse (i.e., MF-CEST) changes the nature of data collection from series to parallel, and thus decreases the total acquisition time by an integer factor corresponding to the number of frequencies in the pulse. We demonstrate the applicability of MF-CEST on a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain from phospholipase Cγ and the secondary active transport protein EmrE as model systems by collecting 13C methyl and 15N backbone datasets. MF-CEST can also be extended to additional sites within proteins and nucleic acids. The only notable drawback of MF-CEST as applied to backbone 15N experiments occurs when a large chemical shift difference between the major and minor populations is present (typically greater than ~ 8 ppm). In these cases, ambiguity may arise between the chemical shift of the minor population and the multiple frequency saturation pulse. Nevertheless, this drawback does not occur for methyl group MF-CEST experiments or in cases where somewhat smaller chemical shift differences occur are present.
Journal of Biomolecular NMR – Springer Journals
Published: May 23, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera