Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) causes premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is recommended as first-line lipid-lowering treatment (LLT) for homozygous (ho) FH. Methods Efficacy of multimodal LLT including lifestyle counseling, drug treatment, and LA was analyzed in 17 pediatric hoFH or compound heterozygous (c-het) FH patients, who commenced chronic LA in Germany before the age of 18. Results At time of diagnosis, mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration was 19.6 mmol/l (756 mg/dl). Multimodal LLT resulted in 73% reduction of mean LDL-C concentration including a 62% contribution of LA. Only three children (18%) achieved mean LDL-C concentrations below the recommended pediatric target of 3.5 mmol/l (135 mg/dl). In 13 patients (76%) during chronic LA, neither cardiovascular events occurred nor was CVD progression detected clinically or by routine imaging techniques. In four patients (24%), cardiovascular events documented progression of CVD despite weekly LA, including one death due to coronary and cerebrovascular CVD which was not stabilized after commencing LA. Based on the mutational status, only 6 out of the 17 children were candidates for proprotein convertase subtilisin–kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition. Two already responded with further LDL-C decrease by 40%. Conclusions Next to drug therapy, regular LA is an
Pediatric Nephrology – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 3, 2018
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