ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2010, Vol. 46, No. 12, pp. 1500–1503. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2010.
Original Russian Text © D.Ya. Gurskiy, A.V. Orlova, D.V. Kopytova, A.N. Krasnov, E.N. Nabirochkina, S.G. Georgieva, Yu.V. Shidlovskii, 2010, published in Genetika, 2010,
Vol. 46, No. 12, pp. 1700–1703.
Gene expression is a multistage process, including
transcription initiation, mRNA synthesis, formation
of mRNP particles, and their export and translation in
the cytoplasm. These processes require participation
of multiple different factors. The mechanisms under
lying association of the stages mentioned, as well as
those behind the interaction of different factors
remain scarcely investigated.
The ENY2 (also called as e(y)2) was first identified
in genetic screening  together with other important
transcriptional coactivators, TAF  and SAYP [3–5].
In our laboratory, this factor was first characterized at
the molecular level as a factor, participating in the
enhancer–promoter interaction in
mary data indicated that
affected expression of a
great number of genes, and its mutations had a number
of phenotypic manifestations.
The ENY2 is a conserved protein present in yeast,
as well as in human. All protein homologs are similar
in size, characterized by high degree of homology [6,
7], and expressed in many tissues. The ENY2 homolog
in yeast was named as Sus1 [7, 8]. The ENY2
homologs were also described in plants  and human
. Furthermore, in
, testisspecific para
log of the ENY2 was described .
The structure of the
from yeast contains introns ,
is devoid of introns as a
result of retrotransposition. The
is a retrocopy
, which is expressed in testes and con
tains introns . It should be noted that the presence
of introns in
is used in the regulation of its activity
in yeast . It seems that in
pathway does not function.
The ENY2 and Sus1 have functions in common [7,
13]. The ENY2/Sus1 complex locates predominantly
at the nuclear periphery, in proximity to NPC, and is
the component of the yTREX2/dAMEX protein
complex. This complex is efficient in mRNA export and
contains four subunits, including ySac3/dXmas2. In
nucleoplasm, ENY2 and Sus1 are the members of the
histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA/TFTC,
mainly localized on gene promoters and involved in
the transcription activation [14, 15]. Furthermore,
Sus1/ENY2 together with ySgfl1/dSgfl1/hATXN7L3
and yUbp8/dNonstop/hUSP22 form the SAGA deu
biquitinylating module [9, 16].
Thus, ENY2/Sus1, being the component of these
two complexes, and thereby participating in the two
stages of the process of gene expression, links tran
scription and mRNA export. ENY2/Sus1 is also
involved in the gene positioning in the nucleus. The
presence of this complex is essential for the attach
ment of the gene loci to nuclear periphery [13, 17]. It
is thought that anchoring of the gene to the NPC facil
itates effective export of nascent mRNA.
Recently it was demonstrated that ENY2/Sus1 was
recruited to the process of transcription elongation
[18, 19]. However, in this case the functions of ENY2
and Sus1 are different.
In our studies we showed that in
interacts with the THO complex , which is
involved in transcription elongation and formation of
the mRNP particles [20–22]. THO and ENY2 colo
calize in many polythene chromosome loci, and their
Multifunctional Factor ENY2 Couples Different
Stages of Gene Expression
D. Ya. Gurskiy
, A. V. Orlova
, D. V. Kopytova
, A. N. Krasnov
E. N. Nabirochkina
, S. G. Georgieva
, and Yu. V. Shidlovskii
Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119334 Russia
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia
University of Oslo Center for Medical Studies, Moscow, 119334 Russia
Received March 17, 2010
—The ENY2/Sus1 is a multifunctional transcription factor which couples transcription with mRNA
export. It is the component of the SAGA/TFTC and TREX2/AMEX protein complexes. Recently, we
described the interaction of ENY2 with one more protein complex, THO. Moreover, our data indicate that
ENY2 associates with other nuclear and cytoplasmic factors. Thus, being the component of a number of pro
tein complexes, ENY2 plays the role of an adaptor molecule, involved into the integration of different cellular
processes, specifically, subsequent stages of gene expression.