Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
Multi-objective optimization of an automotive body component
with ﬁber-reinforced composites
· Jae-Hoon Choi
· Byung-Chai Lee
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 May 2018
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
In this study, the design optimization process of a vehicle front body structure made of short-fiber composites is proposed.
The aim of the optimization process is to reduce the weight in consideration of quality and production characteristics.
Injection molding of short-fiber-reinforced composites leads to anisotropic material properties which depend on the
dimensions of the structure, a finding which is taken into account in this research. First, a basic design is derived through
topology optimization that assumes linear isotropic material properties. Second, anisotropic properties are derived by an
injection molding analysis for each design point and are applied to a structural analysis to consider the anisotropic properties
according to the dimensions of the structure. Third, based on the analysis results, a surrogate model is created and multi-
objective optimization is conducted. The Pareto region, inversely correlated with the lightweight effect, the quality and the
production characteristics, is identified. The optimal solution based on the design goal is derived using the goal-programing
Keywords Short-fiber composites · Multi-objective design optimization · Front-end module · Topology optimization ·
Size optimization · Pareto optimum
Recently, regulations of on automobile fuel consumption
and carbon dioxide emissions have been strengthened
mainly in the US, China and Europe. In the United States,
fuel efficiency improvements of approximately 5% per
year are required. In Europe, greenhouse gas emission
regulations will be strengthened by 2020. Therefore, fuel
efficiency enhancement technology is expected to have an
important impact on the automobile industry in the future.
R&D Center FEM&Cooling Fan Team, Hanon Systems, 95
Sinilseo-ro, Daedeok-gu, Daejeon 34325, Republic of Korea
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced
Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu,
Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea
As the fuel efficiency improvement technology for
existing powertrains is limited, reducing the weight of
vehicle parts has become essential. Xiong et al. (2018)
performed multi-objective optimization of a front end
structure of the car body to reduce the weight and maintain
the torsional stiffness. Li et al. (2015) optimized an
automotive engine cradle for weight reduction. In addition,
much research has been conducted on the efficient design
of an automotive body components, such as multi-cell
structure of an energy absorber (Zheng et al. 2016; Sun et al.
2018) and tailor rolled blank structure (Sun et al. 2017a, b;
Zhang et al. 2018).
There is a growing interest in the design of an automotive
body components using lightweight materials. Zhu et al.
(2018) developed and experimentally verified two shell
models for modeling an energy absorber composed of the
carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite materials. Kulekei
(2008) conducted research on applying magnesium alloys
to vehicles, and Shenqing and Jun (2010) developed a
piston for internal combustion engines using ceramic short
fiber composites. In relation to this, various lightweight
materials such as fiber-reinforced composites, aluminum,
and magnesium have been actively studied (Lucintel 2015).