Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 2, pp. 199−203.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © O.I. Kuntyi, O.I. Bilan’, E.V. Okhremchuk, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 2, pp. 203−207.
AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF METALS
Morphology of Silver Electrolytically Precipitated
from Acetonitrile Solutions of Silver Nitrate
O. I. Kuntyi, O. I. Bilan’, and E. V. Okhremchuk
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine
Received January 26, 2010
Abstract—The electrochemical deposition of silver was investigated from 0.01–0.1 M acetonitrile solutions of
by stationary and pulse current. An effect of the main parameters of the pulse current (duration and pause
of pulse), concentrations of silver ions, time of electrolysis, and nature of support was considered on form and
size of structural particles of deposit.
In the past decades a heightened interest was in elec-
trochemical production of micro [1–3] and nanosize [4–6]
metal particles of preset form and sizes. A pulse elec-
trolysis is one of the most efﬁ cient technique to control
the cathodic formation of a deposit including geometry
of its structural constituents [2, 7]. Researches in this
area were conducted dominantly in aqueous solutions
and only in recent years communications about studies
of the deposition by pulse current in organic aprotic solu-
tions were reported [8, 9]. The aprotic solutions prevents
hydrolysis and are indifferent to majority of metals: that
is important in formation of submicrometer and nanosize
particles, they form stable solvates, are characterized by
high adsorption properties and electrochemical stability.
Therefore the pulse electrolysis in non-aqueous medium
increases an opportunity of production of metals and
In this paper we demonstrated results of silver elec-
trodeposition from acetonitrile solutions of silver nitrate
by pulse current. That is continuation of studies of the
electrochemical deposition of dispersed metals in organic
aprotic solutions [10–12].
Silver was deposited in a three electrode thermostated
glass electrolyzer of 50 cm volume from 0.01–0.1 M ace-
tonitrile solution of AgNo
at 293 K. A working cathode
surface was a butt of a spectrally pure graphite rod of
6 mm in diameter with side surface insulated by Teﬂ on
tape and also indium tin oxide (ITO) glass of 70–10 ohms
(Aldrich) resistance and with its butt of 10 × 10 mm size.
Before each an experiment the graphite electrode was
polished with ﬁ ne sandpaper and then it was washed with
actonitrile. Anode was a silver plate of 99.99% purity.
The reference electrode was saturated silver chloride one.
For electrolysis we used a potentiostat IPC-Pro (Volta,
Ltd). A pulse potential was preset of a rectangular form
with pulse time τ
=6–50 and pause of τ
= 60–450 ms.
To compare precipitates obtained under different elec-
trolysis conditions we computed electrodeposition time
assuming that the passed electricity was the same and
a formed silver ﬁ lm was uniform. The obtained deposits
with a support was washed with acetonitrile, air dried,
and then the samples were examined with a scanning
electron microscope EVO 40XVP.
In the pulse electrolysis in these solutions in com-
parison with the stationary one there was relatively uni-
form distribution of the cathodic silver over the support
surface (Figs. 1a, 1b). Simultaneously the geometry of
the structural particles of the deposit essentially changed
(Figs. 1c–1h). If a potentiostatic electrolysis is character-
ized by formation of dendrites in a wide range of con-
centrations (Figs. 1c, 1e, 1g) the pulse electrolysis, by
a trend to form microcrystalline structure (Figs. 1d, 1f,
1h). This trend increases with a growth in the concentra-