Spines of the slate pencil sea urchin Heterocentrotus mamillatus Linnaeus, 1758, are in focus of biomimetic research as they feature a “graceful” failure behaviour under uniaxial compression dissipating energy and resisting high loads even after high strain. This study elucidates and quantifies the organization of calcitic trabeculae and pores in large primary spines of the slate pencil urchin H. mamillatus by image analysis from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) and gravimetry. This study delivers a detailed distribution of porosities within the whole spine and shows that parts of the spines have a much higher porosity then hitherto thought. The central part (medulla) of the high-magnesium calcitic stereom of H. mamillatus spines has a porosity range of 75% to nearly 90%. From this innermost structure, more than 200 radially aligned, but often sinuous trabeculae extend to the spine rim. The structure of this complicated meshwork (radiating layer) is best seen in basal cross sections and was confirmed by µCT scans. The radiating layer has a porosity range from 40–70% and is irregularly separated by the dense growth layers (15–35% porosity). Growth layers were classified in proximal and distal growth layers with numbers ranging within a single animal between 3–14 and 2–7, respectively. These growth layers are characteristic for H. mamillatus spines and play a major role in their remarkable mechanical properties. The porosity of the spine increases from base to tip. Biological and mechanical implications of the variations are discussed.
Zoomorphology – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 4, 2017
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera