Morphology and porosity of the spines of the sea urchin Heterocentrotus mamillatus and their implications on the mechanical performance

Morphology and porosity of the spines of the sea urchin Heterocentrotus mamillatus and their... Spines of the slate pencil sea urchin Heterocentrotus mamillatus Linnaeus, 1758, are in focus of biomimetic research as they feature a “graceful” failure behaviour under uniaxial compression dissipating energy and resisting high loads even after high strain. This study elucidates and quantifies the organization of calcitic trabeculae and pores in large primary spines of the slate pencil urchin H. mamillatus by image analysis from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) and gravimetry. This study delivers a detailed distribution of porosities within the whole spine and shows that parts of the spines have a much higher porosity then hitherto thought. The central part (medulla) of the high-magnesium calcitic stereom of H. mamillatus spines has a porosity range of 75% to nearly 90%. From this innermost structure, more than 200 radially aligned, but often sinuous trabeculae extend to the spine rim. The structure of this complicated meshwork (radiating layer) is best seen in basal cross sections and was confirmed by µCT scans. The radiating layer has a porosity range from 40–70% and is irregularly separated by the dense growth layers (15–35% porosity). Growth layers were classified in proximal and distal growth layers with numbers ranging within a single animal between 3–14 and 2–7, respectively. These growth layers are characteristic for H. mamillatus spines and play a major role in their remarkable mechanical properties. The porosity of the spine increases from base to tip. Biological and mechanical implications of the variations are discussed. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Zoomorphology Springer Journals

Morphology and porosity of the spines of the sea urchin Heterocentrotus mamillatus and their implications on the mechanical performance

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany
Subject
Life Sciences; Animal Anatomy / Morphology / Histology; Developmental Biology; Evolutionary Biology; Animal Systematics/Taxonomy/Biogeography
ISSN
0720-213X
eISSN
1432-234X
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00435-017-0385-4
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Spines of the slate pencil sea urchin Heterocentrotus mamillatus Linnaeus, 1758, are in focus of biomimetic research as they feature a “graceful” failure behaviour under uniaxial compression dissipating energy and resisting high loads even after high strain. This study elucidates and quantifies the organization of calcitic trabeculae and pores in large primary spines of the slate pencil urchin H. mamillatus by image analysis from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) and gravimetry. This study delivers a detailed distribution of porosities within the whole spine and shows that parts of the spines have a much higher porosity then hitherto thought. The central part (medulla) of the high-magnesium calcitic stereom of H. mamillatus spines has a porosity range of 75% to nearly 90%. From this innermost structure, more than 200 radially aligned, but often sinuous trabeculae extend to the spine rim. The structure of this complicated meshwork (radiating layer) is best seen in basal cross sections and was confirmed by µCT scans. The radiating layer has a porosity range from 40–70% and is irregularly separated by the dense growth layers (15–35% porosity). Growth layers were classified in proximal and distal growth layers with numbers ranging within a single animal between 3–14 and 2–7, respectively. These growth layers are characteristic for H. mamillatus spines and play a major role in their remarkable mechanical properties. The porosity of the spine increases from base to tip. Biological and mechanical implications of the variations are discussed.

Journal

ZoomorphologySpringer Journals

Published: Nov 4, 2017

References

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