ISSN 10214437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2014, Vol. 61, No. 5, pp. 697–706. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Original Russian Text © I.N. Kuzovkina, M.Yu. Prokof’eva, A.R. Umralina, T.P. Chernysheva, 2014, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2014, Vol. 61, No. 5, pp. 739–749.
Vved. is a mem
ber of the genus
(family Lamiaceae) com
prising about 360 plant species. This skullcap species
was identified by A.I. Vvedenskii, and in 1954 it was
included in the catalog of plants of the USSR flora as
a rare species growing in the Kyrgyzstan . The dis
tribution area of
is very limited. The
plant is met on the rocky slopes and rocks of Atoynok
and Fergana ranges at an altitude of 900–1600 m
above sea level and because of its small number is
included not only in the international list of endan
gered species of medicinal plants  but also in the
Red Book of endemic plants of the Kyrgyzstan .
There is no information about this plant cultivation.
is a perennial not tall plant with
white with violet spots corollas of ornamental flowers
with a structure typical for plants from the Labiaceae
family. It flowers in May–June and bears fruits in July.
The chemical composition of
ondary metabolites is unknown because of its rare
occurrence and growth in low accessible mountainous
regions of Kyrgyzstan . That is why this plant was
not included in the list of other skullcap species, in
which the composition of secondary compounds con
tained in the roots and aboveground parts was exten
sively studied . Plant rare occurrence and complete
absence of information about the chemical composi
tion of secondary metabolites located in its organs and
especially in the underground parts served as a prereq
uisite for the introduction into the in vitro culture of
genetically transformed roots of
the study of their ability to synthesize flavonoids, fla
vones, and phenylethanoides, rootspecific for all
species and manifesting high physiological
activity [5, 6].
The objective of this work was to study growth
roots cultivated in
vitro and to compare qualitative and quantitative com
position of secondary metabolites synthesized in
genetically transformed roots, the roots of intact
plants, not only adult but also juvenile ones.
Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Genetically
Transformed Roots of
I. N. Kuzovkina
, M. Yu. Prokof’eva
, A. R. Umralina
, and T. P. Chernysheva
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences. Botanicheskaya ul. 35, Moscow, 127276 Russia;
fax: 7 (499) 9778018; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Institute of Biotechnology, National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyz Republik, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Received October 1, 2013
—Genetically transformed roots (hairy roots) and callus tissue of skullcap (
Vved.) were for the first time introduced in the in vitro culture.
is the endemic plant
of the Kyrgyzstan. These cultures were characterized by active and stable growth in the hormonefree liquid
Gamborg nutrient medium. The growth rate of undifferentiated callus tissue was higher than that of hairy
roots, which were the source of this callus. The composition of secondary metabolites in hairy roots, callus
tissue, and also the roots of seedlings and adult
plants was analyzed. It was found that
hairy roots and callus culture retained the ability for the synthesis of flavones typical for the
roots of intact plants. Substantial quantitative differences in secondary metabolites were observed between the
roots of juvenile and adult plants. In the seedling roots, which like hairy roots have no secondary thickening,
wogonoside, a wogonin glucuronide, predominated among flavones. In the roots of adult plants growing due
to the secondary thickening, balcalin, a baicalein glucuronide, was a dominating flavon. It is proposed to use
the largescale in vitro cultivation of roots and especially the rapidly growing callus tissue of
with a profitable content of only one group of flavones for the development of the biotechnological method
for producing wogonin and creating on its basis a new drug – a valuable anticancer agent of plant origin with
selective cytotoxic activity.
Keywords: Scutellaria andrachnoides,
hairy roots, flavones, baicalein, baicalin, wogonin, wogonoside, phe
nylethanoides, acteoside, secondary metabolism in vitro
: GI—growth index; IBA—indolylbutiric acid.