The development of loach embryos is successfully regulated (normalized) after partial removal of the cytoplasm from one blastomere at the two- or four-cell stage or complete removal of one or two blastomeres at the stage of 8–16 cells. Using time-lapse video imaging and morphometric analysis, it has been shown that this regulation is a two-stage process. At the first stage, the ratio between the volumes of the blastodisk and yolk sac is rapidly (within one or two cell cycles) restored almost to the initial level; at the second stage, morphogenesis of the embryo is modified according to its new structural features acquired after the operation. After several rounds of cytokinesis, the cytoplasm remaining in the operated blastomere fuses with the marginal yolk syncytium (periblast), which at the blastula stage forms a distinct extension at the operation site. This extension marks the site of embryonic shield formation. The results of morphometric analysis show that restoration of the initial blastoderm volume in operated embryos leads to a reduction of active tension at the blastoderm-yolk boundary and an increase in the ratio of blastoderm surface to its volume at the moment of epiboly initiation. As a result, the convergence of blastoderm cells to the operation site and the embryonic shield formation begin at a lesser degree of epiboly, compared to the control.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: May 14, 2012
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