The morphology and development are described for Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibiricaDu Tour) growing at the timberline in the Western Sayan Mountains. Throughout ontogeny, these plants have a short stem trailing in an approximately horizontal direction. Maximal longevity and viability are characteristic of basal branches, which are able to root and produce vegetative generations. This allows these plants to be classified with the procumbent tree life form, in which the clones of most adaptive genotypes not only survive under extreme environmental conditions, but can also reproduce vegetatively.
Russian Journal of Ecology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 13, 2004
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