Physical Oceanography, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2004
MONITORING OF THE BLACK-SEA DYNAMICS BASED ON SATELLITE
V. N. Eremeev, G. K. Korotaev, and L. N. Radaikina
We present a survey of the principles and methods of satellite monitoring of the ocean, analyze
the prospects of application of the data of satellite measurements to the operative diagnostics and
prediction of circulation in the Black Sea, and discuss the physical foundations of remote sens-
ing, the possibilities of contemporary equipment aimed at the observation of the sea surface from
satellites, and the applicability of satellites as retransmitters of the data of measurements from
free-drifting buoys. The contemporary oceanographic investigations carried out from satellites
enable one to use the accumulated data for the numerical analysis of currents in seas and oceans
in the model of general circulation as well as for the creation of a system of operative diagnostics
and prediction of the state of marine environment. Examples of experimental realization of ele-
ments of the system of operative diagnostics of the state of the Black Sea based on the use of the
satellite data are presented and the prospects of prediction of currents in the basin are analyzed.
The history of application of satellites in oceanography is quite long. The observations of the ocean from
the space were first visual. Later, they transformed into measuring principles approved within the framework of
the experimental satellite programs extensively realized in the 60–80s of the previous century.
The methods used
for the remote observation of the sea surface from satellites attained an absolutely new level in their development
for the last
yr. These years were characterized by the transition from experiments to the trial operation of sat-
ellite systems of observation of the ocean from the space. The contemporary equipment used for remote sensing
enables one to perform regular observations within a broad band with high spatial resolution and, hence, repeat
measurements with high frequency. The accuracy of remote measurements completely satisfies the requirements
of the oceanological practice. This is why the procedure of remote sensing from the space is now regarded as the
main source of continuously coming information about the World Ocean and its variability.
The other directions of practical application of satellites (as means of communication, basic elements of
contemporary navigation systems, and retransmitters of information) are also efficiently used for the purposes of
oceanography. Thus, the data of measurements from platforms of various types often located in distant regions
of the ocean are retransmitted by satellites directly to the data-accumulation centers in the real-time mode of
operation. Hence, the application of free-drifting platforms appears to be very efficient in oceanography.
At present, the satellite-based systems of observations combined with models of circulation enable one to
perform continuous monitoring of the dynamics of seas with high spatial resolution. The costs required for the
operation of systems of this sort are much lower than the costs required for the traditional oceanographic systems
based on ship observations. The realization of efficient observation systems based on the extensive use of satel-
lites in the Black Sea is an especially urgent problem in view of the limited economical possibilities of the coas-
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol. Translated from Morskoi Gidrofizicheskii Zhurnal,
73–88, March–April, 2004. Original article submitted February 4, 2003.
114 0928-5105/04/1402–0114 © 2004 Plenum Publishing Corporation