ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2010, Vol. 46, No. 11, pp. 1373–1380. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2010.
Published in Russian in Genetika, 2010, Vol. 46, No. 11, pp. 1556–1564.
Baikalian cyclopoid copepods includes 44 species
and subspecies related to nine genera, two subfami
lies, one family . From zoogeographic point of view,
majority of baikalian cyclopoids (56%) are endemics.
By endemics number, this group occupies 4th place
among the arthropoda, after isopods, amphipods and
ostracods . Baikalian cyclopoids inhabit all envi
ronments: pelagic area, abyssal area, supraabyssal
area, sublittoral area, littoral, zone of littoral setup;
there are species the life of which is connected with life
on or inside sponges bodies. The most abundant
among cyclopoids are eurybathic species:
inhabiting open pelagic area, gulfs, bays of the lake.
inhabits both small depths (1–3 m) and the
depth of 250–300 m, but it prefers upper horizon of open
pelagic area, 0–50 m. During a year it is a part of zoop
lankton structural center making 30–60% of its
are more ther
mophilic forms, these cyclopoids develop the best in
shallowwater zone, gulfs and bays. So,
from Mukhor Gulf is a basic zooplankton species
during open water period, it makes from 18 to 93% of
total abundance . Another thermophilic species,
, is the most abundant among lowest crus
taceans in Posol’sk and Northern Baikal shallow gulfs.
Major part of cyclopoid species are included in the
group of benthic organisms. One of them inhabits
The article was translated by the authors.
psammolittoral zone—this is
Alekseev and Arov, 1986 which is the smallest cyclo
poid among described in Lake Baikal. The sizes of a
mature female are 0.35–0.4 mm without furcal chae
tae. The most preferable depths for Baikalian cyclo
poids, according to data of Mazepova are littoral and
sublittoral areas. Fauna of cyclopoids at the depths of
>250 m is less diverse. We have found in our collections
four cyclopoid species inhabiting depths from 830 to
1425 m. These are
Acanthocyclops profundus profundus
Mazepova, 1962. Besides above mentioned
species, Mazepova notices as well the presence of
(Mazepova, 1962) in these biotopes. By
habitat, there is an interesting socalled symbiotic
1962) living on a sponge. This species has special mor
phological devices for inhabiting sponges. In our col
lections, we found
on the surface and
inside sponge bodies.
By the present moment, this comparatively numer
ous group of Baikalian organisms remains stile poorly
studied. The questions concerning relationship of
Baikalian cyclopoids and their origin history in the
lake are still not answered (these are time and ways of
their penetration onto this territory, the most probable
ancestral forms, impact of geological, climatic and
other factors, genealogy of generation of any fea
tures—monophyly or polyphyly of their appearance,
In this work, molecularphylogenetic analysis of
Baikalian representatives of Cyclopoida was made.
MolecularPhylogenetic Analysis of Cyclopoids
(Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from Lake Baikal
and Its Water Catchment Basin
T. Yu. Mayor, N. G. Sheveleva, L. V. Sukhanova, O. A. Timoshkin, and S. V. Kiril’chik
Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk 664033
Received February 3, 2010; in final form, May 20, 2010
—Baikalian cyclopoids represent one of the richest endemic faunas of freshwater cyclopoid copep
ods. The genus
Kiefer, 1927 is the most numerous by species number in the lake. In this work,
molecularphylogenetic analysis of 14 species and 1 subspecies from Lake Baikal and its water catchment
basin is performed. The regions of mitochondrial cytochromoxydase I (COI) and of nuclear smallsubunit
18S rRNA were used as evolution markers. In the obtained set of
gene sequences, an effect of synony
mous substitution saturation is revealed. Baikalian representatives of the genus
form at phyloge
netic schemes by two markers a monophyletic group, it suggest their origin from a common ancestral form.
Preliminary estimate of this group age is 20–25 My.