Gliomas are invasive recurrent brain tumors with high lethality. Gliomas have been morphologically divided into astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Gliomas are graded according to the criteria of the World Health Organization criteria as grade I (pilocytic astrocytomas), grade II (low-grade gliomas), grade III (high-grade gliomas), and grade IV (glioblastoma). The mutations of IDH1/2 and TP53 genes and MGMT methylation have been described as prognostic markers of glioma. The aim of the present review is to analyze research and experimental results (Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed) concerning somatic mutations, aberrant regulation of gene expression of signal pathways, diagnostic and prognostic markers of glioma progression and characterizing various morphological types and grades of glioma. In particular, the specificities of medulloblastomas and ependymomas have been considered in the present review.
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology – Springer Journals
Published: May 30, 2018
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