SciEntific RePORTS | 7: 16694 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-16888-z
Molecular Identication of ten
species of stored-product psocids
through microarray method based
on ITS2 rDNA
, Ao-Han Pang
, Shi-Qian Feng
, Bing-Yi Cui
, Zi-Hua Zhao
, Zuzana Kučerová
, George Opit
, Radek Aulicky
, Yang Cao
, Fu-Jun Li
, Yi Wu
, Tao Zhang
Stored-product psocids (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) are cosmopolitan storage pests that can damage
stored products and cause serious economic loss. However, because of the body size (~1 mm) of eggs,
nymphs, and adults, morphological identication of most stored-product psocids is dicult and
hampers eective identication. In this study, 10 economically important stored-product Liposcelis
spp. psocids (Liposcelis brunnea, L. entomophila, L. decolor, L. pearmani, L. rufa, L.mendax, L.
bostrychophila, L. corrodens, L. paeta, and L. tricolor) were collected from 25 geographic locations in
3 countries (China, Czech Republic, and the United States). Ten species-specic probes for identifying
these 10 psocid species were designed based on ITS2 sequences. The microarray method and reaction
system were optimized. Specicity of each of the ten probes was tested, and all probes were found
suitable for use in identication of the respective10 Liposcelis spp. psocids at 66 °C. This method was
also used to identify an unknown psocid species collected in Taian, China. This work has contributed
to the development of a molecular identication method for stored-product psocids, and can provide
technical support not only to facilitate identication of intercepted samples in relation to plant
quarantine, but also for use in insect pest monitoring.
Stored-product psocids (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae), also called booklice, barklice, or dustlice, belong to the
genus Liposcelis and are regarded as worldwide storage pests
. is pest infests stored products, such as cereal
grains and their processed products, other non-cereal-based foods, books, records and biological specimens, and
high population densities cause serious economic losses
. ere are currently, 126 species of stored-product psoc-
ids identied worldwide and these have been placed in 2 sections (Sections I and II) and 4 groups (Groups IA, IB,
IIC and IID). Among them, 10 species, Liposcelis brunnea (Motschulshy), L. entomophila (Enderlein), L. decolor
(Pearman), L. pearmani (Lienhard), L. rufa (Broadhead), L. mendax (Pearman), L. bostrychophila (Badonnel), L.
corrodens (Motschulsky), L. paeta (Pearman), and L. tricolor (Badonnel) are considered common species which
are pests of substance and a threat to stored-product trade
. In the last 30 years psocids have risen to prominence
as serious pests and not just nuisance pests. However, because of their small body size (~1 mm), they are dicult
to identify using morphological characteristics; this hampers fast identication of the various psocid species
using any of the life stages of these pests
. e frequency of interception of stored-product psocids at ports of
entry is currently approximately 2,300 times/year based on data for 2014–2016, and the frequency of these inter-
ceptions continue to increase with increase in international trade by China (based on the intercept and capture
data provided by Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine. Unpublished). In addition, this pest can also
be found in many kinds of goods (commodities) and packaging materials
. erefore, accurate and fast identi-
cation methods are urgently needed for those working in plant quarantine, grain reposition and transportation,
and archives management.
Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.
Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507, 161 06, Prague 6, Czech Republic.
Department of Entomology and Plant
Pathology, 127 Noble Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA.
Academy of State
Administration of Grain, Beijing, 100037, China. Li-Jun Liu and Ao-Han Pang contributed equally to this work.
Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to Z.-H.L. (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Received: 9 May 2017
Accepted: 11 October 2017
Published: xx xx xxxx