Recent investigations in phytoimmunology have extended the classical views on plant immunity, thus providing the modern concept of phytoimmunity. According to the current vision, the protection of plant organisms against pathogen attacks is determined by functioning of multilayered immune system in combination with structures and mechanisms of specific and nonspecific innate immunity. Perception by plant membrane receptors of the conserved molecular patterns associated with microorganisms, as well as perception of molecules released from the host cell walls under the impact of pathogen hydrolytic enzymes, constitutes the basal (nonspecific) immunity of plants. Detection of pathogen effector molecules by intracellular plant receptors triggers specific immunity reactions, including the development of hypersensitive response, systemic resistance, and the immune memory. Virulence factors alongside with the strategies of pathogen attack, on the one hand, and the components of plant immune system, on the other hand, are the result of a permanent coevolution reminiscent of “an arms race and counterattacks” between the warring parties. The basic molecular–genetic aspects of specific and nonspecific immunity in plants exposed to fungal and bacterial phytopathogens are discussed in the light of modern advances in phytoimmunology.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 14, 2015
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