Four independent heterozygous lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) mutations with approximately 60% of wild-type enzyme activity in whole blood have been recovered. The mutant line Ldh1 a2Neu proved to be homozygous lethal, whereas for the three lines Ldh1 a7Neu, Ldh1 a11Neu, and Ldh1 a12Neu homozygous mutants with about 20% residual activity occurred in the progeny of heterozygous inter se matings. However, the number of homozygous mutants was less than expected, suggesting an increased lethality of these animals. Various physicochemical and kinetic properties of LDH are altered. Exons of the Ldh1 gene were PCR amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular lesion in the mutant alleles. Ldh1 a2Neu carried an A/T → G/C transition in codon 112 (in exon 3), resulting in an Asn → Asp substitution; Asn112 is part of the helix αD, which is involved in the coenzyme-binding domain. Ldh1 a7Neu contained an A/T → C/G transversion within the codon for residue 194 in exon 4, causing an Asp → Ala substitution, which may affect the arrangement of the substrate-binding site. Three base substituions were discovered for the mutation Ldh1 a11Neu in exon 7: the transition C/G → T/A, a silent mutation, and two transversions C/G → A/T and C/G → G/C, both missense mutations, which led to the amino acid replacements Ala319 → Glu and Thr321 → Ser, respectively, located in the αH helix structure of the COOH tail of LDHA. We suggest that the mutation is the result of a gene conversion event between Ldh1 a wild-type gene and the pseudogene Ldh1-ps. The alteration Ile → Thr of codon 241 in exon 6 caused by the base pair change T/A → C/G was identified in the mutation Ldh1 a12Neu; IIe241 is included in the helix α2G, a structure that is indirectly involved in coenzyme binding. Each of the sequence alterations has a potential impact on the structure of the LDHA protein, which is consistent with the decreased LDH activity and biochemical and physiological alterations.
Mammalian Genome – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 28, 2009
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