Molecular characterization of coxsackievirus A21 in Shandong, China

Molecular characterization of coxsackievirus A21 in Shandong, China Coxsackievirus A21 (CV-A21) is a rarely detected serotype belonging to the species Enterovirus C (EV-C). In this study, we report the isolation and genetic characterization of CV-A21 in Shandong Province, China, during 1997 to 2013. A total of 13 strains were obtained from surveillance of cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) (n = 9) and from environmental sewage (n = 4). Sequence comparison of the VP1 genes revealed high nucleotide sequence similarity (94.1 % to 99.8 % identity) among these Shandong strains during the period of 17 years and 75.8 % to 98.5 % sequence identity to foreign strains. Bayesian phylodynamic evolutionary analysis of Shandong and global CV-A21 VP1 sequences revealed that the inferred CV-A21 ancestral sequence dated back to 1750 (1643–1841) and evolved with 2.943 × 10 −3 substitutions per site per year. Alignment of the deduced VP1 amino acid sequences revealed changes that might alter the hydropathicity of the encoded protein. The complete genome of one strain from 2013 was sequenced and evidence of recombination was detected by similarity plot and bootscanning analyses. This study describes the complete genome characterization and molecular epidemiology of CV-A21 in China and gives further insight into CV-A21 evolution. Archives of Virology Springer Journals

Molecular characterization of coxsackievirus A21 in Shandong, China

Loading next page...
Springer Vienna
Copyright © 2016 by Springer-Verlag Wien
Biomedicine; Virology; Medical Microbiology; Infectious Diseases
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site


  • Picornavirales, a proposed order of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses with a pseudo-T = 3 virion architecture
    Gall, O; Christian, P; Fauquet, CM; King, AM; Knowles, NJ; Nakashima, N; Stanway, G; Gorbalenya, AE

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.



billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial