Modulation of Native TREK-1 and Kv1.4 K+ Channels by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Lysophospholipids

Modulation of Native TREK-1 and Kv1.4 K+ Channels by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and... The modulation of TREK-1 leak and Kv1.4 voltage-gated K+ channels by fatty acids and lysophospholipids was studied in bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, arachidonic acid (AA) (1–20 µM) dramatically and reversibly increased the activity of bTREK-1, while inhibiting bKv1.4 current by mechanisms that occurred with distinctly different kinetics. bTREK-1 was also activated by the polyunsaturated cis fatty acid linoleic acid but not by the trans polyunsaturated fatty acid linolelaidic acid or saturated fatty acids. Eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), which blocks formation of active AA metabolites, failed to inhibit AA activation of bTREK-1, indicating that AA acts directly. Compared to activation of bTREK-1, inhibition of bKv1.4 by AA was rapid and accompanied by a pronounced acceleration of inactivation kinetics. Cis polyunsaturated fatty acids were much more effective than trans or saturated fatty acids at inhibiting bKv1.4. ETYA also effectively inhibited bKv1.4, but less potently than AA. bTREK-1 current was markedly increased by lysophospholipids including lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) and lysophosphatidyl inositol (LPI). At concentrations from 1–5 µM, LPC produced a rapid, transient increase in bTREK-1 that peaked within one minute and then rapidly desensitized. The transient lysophospholipid-induced increases in bTREK-1 did not require the presence of ATP or GTP in the pipette solution. These results indicate that the activity of native leak and voltage-gated K+ channels are directly modulated in reciprocal fashion by AA and other cis unsaturated fatty acids. They also show that lysophospholipids enhance bTREK-1, but with a strikingly different temporal pattern. The modulation of native K+ channels by these agents differs from their effects on the same channels expressed in heterologous cells, highlighting the critical importance of auxiliary subunits and signaling. Finally, these results reveal that AZF cells express thousands of bTREK-1 K+ channels that lie dormant until activated by metabolites including phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-generated fatty acids and lysophospholipids. These metabolites may alter the electrical and secretory properties of AZF cells by modulating bTREK-1 and bKv1.4 K+ channels. The Journal of Membrane Biology Springer Journals

Modulation of Native TREK-1 and Kv1.4 K+ Channels by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Lysophospholipids

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