Experiments with batch suspensions, recirculating columns and flow-through columns have been carried out involving a sandy soil and five bacteriophages: MS2, PRD1, φX174, Qβ and PM2. In batch and recirculating column experiments, attachment and detachment rate coefficients were determined by fitting a two-parameter (attachment and detachment) model. In general, attachment and detachment rate coefficients were not found to be significantly different between the two kinds of experiments. There was one exception, however: MS2 appeared to detach faster in the presence of strong advective flow. In the case of flow-through column experiments, it is shown that a two-site model, with adsorption to equilibrium and kinetic sites, fits the breakthrough curves of all the phages, except PM2, satisfactorily. A one-site kinetic model was found to be appropriate for phage PM2. A small proportion of bacteriophages MS2, PRD1, and Qβ adsorbed to equilibrium sites, whereas a large proportion of φX174 adsorbed to equilibrium sites. Such a distinction between adsorption to equilibrium and kinetic sites cannot be made in the case of batch or recirculating column experiments. Kinetic attachment rate coefficients were found to be significantly higher for the bacteriophages with presumably stronger negative charge. This may be ascribed to the presence of multivalent cations. Under these conditions, bacteriophage φX174 appears to behave more conservatively than more negatively charged viruses, and may then be a better choice as a relatively conservative tracer for virus transport through the subsurface.
Quantitative Microbiology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 8, 2004
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