Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 4, pp. 659−663.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
E.G. Vinokurov, K.L. Kandyrin, V.V. Bondar’, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 4, pp. 606−610.
AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF METALS
Modeling of the Solution Composition and a Study
of the Electrodeposition of the Cu–Zn Alloy
E. G. Vinokurov
, K. L. Kandyrin
, and V. V. Bondar’
Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Engineering, Moscow, Russia
Lomonosov State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow, Russia
All-Russia Institute of Scientiﬁ c and Technological Information,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Received April 3, 2009
Abstract—Choice of ligands in development of new solution compositions for electrodeposition of alloys was
simulated and the possibility of electrodeposition of the Cu–Zn alloy from a solution of gluconate complexes of
ions of these metals was experimentally veriﬁ ed. The effect of various factors on the admissible current density
of electrodeposition of high-quality Cu–Zn alloy coatings, brass composition, current efﬁ ciency by the alloy, and
strength of brass adhesion to rubber was studied.
Brass electroplating is one of the most widely used
methods for improving the adhesion of a metal to
rubber. The existing solutions for brass electroplating
have disadvantages, such as low stability (solutions
of glycerate and tartrate complexes) or high toxicity
(solutions of cyanide and ethylenediamine complexes),
and the deposition processes provide, e.g., only a low
alloy deposition rate or a narrow range of admissible
current densities. The aim of this study was to develop
a new low-toxic solution for brass electroplating.
Deposits for studying the effect of various factors on
the alloy composition and the current efﬁ ciency (CE)
by the alloy were obtained in the galvanostatic mode
in electrolyzers with volumes of 0.5–2 l on stainless
steel or carbon steel (St.3) plates. A metallurgical
alloy served as anodes. The steel samples
were degreased, washed with running and then distilled
water, activated in a sulfuric acid solution (10%), and
again washed with distilled water. The limiting current
density of electrodeposition of high-quality (without
burnings) brass coatings was determined in a 250-ml
Hull cell. The effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the
brass composition and CE was studied in a 1-l cylindrical
electrolyzer at various solution ﬂ ow velocities.
The copper content of the alloy was determined by
iodometry. The strength of brass adhesion was evaluated
by the following method. Three-layer samples were
assembled by covering a steel brass-plated plate with
a layer of cushion rubber mixture based on CKI-3
isoprene caoutchouc, and then with a layer of fabric.
After that the samples were vulcanized for 30 min in
an electrically heated press at 155°C. In 24 h after the
vulcanization, 20-mm-wide bands were cut-out from the
samples and split on an Instron 1122 dynamometer at
a motion velocity of the active clamp of 100 mm min
We chose a ligand for the new solution composition
on the basis of a uniﬁ ed model for electrodeposition of
the alloy . In the present study, a model is constructed
for choosing ligands for electrodeposition of the Cu–Zn
alloy under the following conditions.
(1) The ligand must form with Cu
compounds whose stability constants (β°) exceed those
of the corresponding hydroxo complexes (Fig. 1, lines 1