Physical Oceanography, Vol.
MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF MARINE SYSTEMS
MODELING OF CIRCULATION AND PROPAGATION OF CONTAMINATING
IMPURITIES IN THE BALAKLAVA BAY
A. I. Kubryakov
and M. A. Popov
The Princeton Ocean Model is adapted to the water area of the Balaklava Bay for the numerical
analysis of circulation. The calculations are performed with the help of the diagnostic method by
using the data of the hydrological survey carried out in the bay in August 1992. We study the
structure of the surface and bottom currents in the analyzed period as well as the vertical circula-
tion of waters and the circulation averaged over the depth. The obtained three-dimensional fields
of currents are used for the numerical analysis of the process of propagation of passive contamin-
ating impurities from the sources located on the coasts of the Balaklava Bay.
The Balaklava Bay occupies a special place in the system of Sevastopol bays. This bay significantly differs
not only from the other Sevastopol bays but also from all bays throughout the Black Sea. It is located between
Cape Aiya and Cape Fiolent. The surrounding territory is mountainous with heights up to
over the sea
level. By its morphometric characteristics [small width (up to
great depth (up to
coasts, tortuosity, and the trough-shaped cross profile], it resembles a fiord made dozens of times smaller. The
bay is protected against the wind-wave impact, and the water exchange with the open sea is quite complicated.
The improper exploitation of the water area and territory of the bay from the viewpoint of ecology and re-
creation led to serious consequences. The disposal of raw domestic and industrial waste waters, storm sewage,
uninterrupted leakages of oil products from the ships based and repaired in the bay, and the washout of fertilizers
and pesticides from the fields and their arrival with the waters of River Balaklavka exert negative influence on
the quality of waters in the bay. The decrease in the anthropogenic pressure as a result of the withdrawal of the
submarine fleet caused a positive effect on the ecological state of the bay. However, the level of contamination
of water remains quite high. It is much higher than the maximum permissible concentrations and the average
values of numerous parameters typical of the open areas of the Black Sea [1, 2].
The natural and climatic conditions of the Balaklava Bay as well as its geographic location open wide
possibilities for the development of resort and recreation complexes. At the same time, this will inevitably in-
crease the anthropogenic pressure upon the marine medium.
The urgency of the problem of diagnostics of circulation of waters in different parts of the Black Sea neigh-
boring with densely populated regions is, for the most part, determined by the ecological factors because the ele-
vated inflow of technogenic impurities caused by the intensification of economic activity dictates the necessity
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol.
Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol.
Translated from Morskoi Gidrofizicheskii Zhurnal, No.
49–61, May–June, 2005. Original article submitted November 12, 2003;
revision submitted January 16, 2004.
180 0928-5105/05/1503–0180 © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.