Within the framework of the integral model in isopycnic coordinates including the upper mixed layer, we study the rearrangement of temperature and salinity fields in the Dead Sea. It is forced by the variability of atmospheric factors and mass fluxes through the lateral boundaries of the basin, which are connected with the freshwater run-off to the sea and the outflow from the sea to the shallow south bay, where evaporator installations for salt extraction are located. Such factors as solar radiation, wind velocity, air temperature, and relative humidity are prescribed. Evaporation is calculated with the use of a bulk formula, whereas precipitation intensity and discharge through the lateral boundaries are determined as functions of the sea level obtained from observations. This model reflects the specific character of the Dead Sea and takes into account the effect of water salinity on its evaporation, salt concretion, and “mechanical” evaporation. Comparison with the data of observations shows that the proposed model fairly precisely describes the observed specific features of the thermohaline water structure in the meromictic (1992–1996) and holomictic (1996–2000) periods.
Physical Oceanography – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 21, 2004
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