1022-7954/05/4109- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 41, No. 9, 2005, pp. 1040–1045. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 41, No. 9, 2005, pp. 1265–1271.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Morozova, Naumova, Rychkov, Zhukova.
Russians, who occupy an immense area comparable
by its size with the whole Western Europe, are charac-
terized by substantial anthropological and dialectic
diversity. Development of the independent Russian
nation began in the 9th century A.D., as a result of the
integration of Eastern Slavic tribes within the frames of
the Old Russian State, and assimilation of Finno-Ugric,
Baltic, and Turkic ethnic groups . Subsequent inte-
gration and migration processes, as well as an enlarge-
ment of the territory of residence, introduced new eth-
nic elements into the Ancient Russian ethnic group.
Numerous investigations of anthropological traits and
classical genetic markers provided the idea on the com-
plex genetic structure of Russians, and described the
regional differences between different groups, caused
by the interaction of newly arrived Slavic tribes with
aboriginal populations. Until recently, mitochondrial
DNA (mtDNA) diversity of Russians was studied only
in some individual populations. At present, this prob-
lem attracts growing attention.
This study was focused on general genetic charac-
teristics of Russians from ﬁve oblasts, located within
their ethnic area , Ryazan’ oblast, Tambov oblast,
Orel oblast, Ivanovo oblast, and Vologda oblast.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Blood samples for analysis were obtained from the
indigenous Russian populations from ﬁve oblasts of the
European part of Russia: Ryazan’ oblast (
= 36), Ivanovo oblast (
= 36), Vologda oblast
= 36), and Tambov oblast (
= 36) (bank of samples
of the Laboratory of Human Genetics, Vavilov Institute
of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences).
As demonstrated in a number of studies, this was sufﬁ-
cient for general genetic characterization of the popula-
tion [2, 3].
DNA was extracted from the whole blood using a
standard procedure . The mtDNA coding region
RFLP was examined. For this purpose, DNA was
ampliﬁed in PCR, generating eleven nonoverlapping
fragments  (Table 1). The primers used were
designed by Torroni
. In each fragment poly-
morphism of the restriction sites, diagnostic for the
nine main European haplogroups and also for the Asian
macrohaplogroup M, was examined. A set of nine
restriction endonucleases, including
used  (Table 1).
Calculation of angular genetic distances
the populations was performed using the method of
Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards , which assumed that
mtDNA haplogroups were alleles of a single locus.
Population variability of mtDNA haplogroups was
evaluated using Wright’s
statistics  (calculated as
averaged over the haplogroups), as well as using the
values of squared deviation of the haplogroup frequen-
cies in individual populations from the averaged fre-
quencies over the whole region (
) . Genetic dis-
tances were analyzed using multidimensional scaling
(STATISTIKA, version 6).
For comparative analysis, we used the data on
mtDNA diversity in the populations of Europe and
Ural, belonging to different linguistic groups: Slavic
(Ukrainians , Bulgarians , Bosnians and Slove-
Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism in Russian Population
form Five Oblasts of the European Part of Russia
I. Yu. Morozova, O. Yu. Naumova, S. Yu. Rychkov, and O. V. Zhukova
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia;
fax: (095)135-13-91; e-mail: email@example.com
Received October 29, 2004
—New data on mitochondrial DNA polymorphism among Russian population from ﬁve oblasts,
located within the main ethnic area of Russians, speciﬁcally, Ryazan’ oblast, Ivanovo oblast, Vologda oblast,
Orel oblast, and Tambov oblast (
= 177) are presented. RFLP analysis of the mtDNA coding region showed
that most of the mtDNA diversity in the populations examined could be described by main European haplo-
groups H, U, T, J, K, I, V, W, and X. Haplogroup frequency distribution patterns in the populations of interest
were analyzed in comparison with the European and Uralic populations. Based on the haplogroup frequencies,
the indices of intraethnic population diversity, Wright’s
statistics, and the values of squared deviation from
the mean, as well as genetic distances between Russians and European and Uralic populations were estimated.
Analysis of these indices along with the anthropological data provided identiﬁcation of a number of regional
groups within the populations examined, which could either result from the interaction of ancient Slavs with
different non-Slavic tribes, or could be caused by the ethnic heterogeneity of the ancient Slavs themselves.