Res. Chem. Intermed.
, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 673–681 (2004)
Also available online - www.vsppub.com
Microwave-induced catalytic transformation
of 2-tert-butylphenol at low temperatures
JANA KURFÜRSTOVÁ and MILAN HÁJEK
Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic,
Rozvojová 135, 165 02 Prague 6, Czech Republic
Received 22 December 2003; accepted 3 March 2004
Abstract—Catalytic transformation of 2-tert-butylphenol (2TBP) on a heterogeneous K10 catalyst
has been studied in the temperature range from +75 to −176
C under microwave and conventional
conditions. The reaction was carried out with or without solvents and the kinetic results were
described using the method of initial reaction rates. Reaction rates were recorded under microwave
conditions and compared to conventional ones. Transformation of 2TBP did not proceed below 0
under conventional conditions, whereas under microwave irradiation signiﬁcant initial reaction rates
were observed. Relatively high initial reaction rates at low temperatures were most probably caused
by superheating of catalyst particles. The superheating temperature was calculated to be between 80
C above the temperature of the bulk.
Keywords:2-tert-Butylphenol (2TBP); K10 catalyst; low-temperature transformation; superheating.
In recent years an increasing number of papers concerning acceleration of chemical
reactions by microwave irradiation have been reported. In general, it has been
found that there are differences in reaction rates and yields of the products under
microwave and conventionally heated reactions.
It was found that heterogeneous reactions taking place on the surface of solid
catalyst are more likely to be inﬂuenced by microwave radiation than homogenous
reactions in solution where possibilities of activation are rather limited [1–5].
On the other hand, heterogeneous catalytic reactions in liquid phase showed
higher reaction rates under microwave conditions compared to conventional heating
mode [4, 6–8].
Transformations of 2-tert-butylphenol (2TBP) catalyzed by clays have been
usually carried out at reﬂux temperature (225–230
C) under conventional heating
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