Microwave-assisted, water-mediated Michael addition
for synthesis of kojic acid derivatives
Pravin R. Likhar
G. Narshimha Reddy
M. Ramana Reddy
Received: 29 November 2015 / Accepted: 31 December 2015 / Published online: 20 January 2016
Ó Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016
Abstract A highly efﬁcient method is described for the synthesis of substituted
kojic acid derivatives in the presence of water under microwave irradiation. This
transformation represents an efﬁcient way to synthesize kojic acid derivatives from
simple starting materials.
Keywords Kojic acid Á Nitro styrenes Á Amino substituted kojic acid derivatives Á
Kojic acid and its analogues have emerged as potential biologically active
molecules because of their broad spectrum of activity against various pathogens .
It has been known as an additive to prevent browning of food materials in the food
industry, as an antioxidant in order to preserve their freshness and to inhibit
discoloration . Also, it forms stable complexes of metal kojates via reaction of
kojic acid with metal acetate salts [3–5]. Additionally, kojic acid and its derivatives
have been shown to possess various bioactivities such as antimicrobial, cosmetic
skin-whitening , herbicidal , anti-speck , pesticide , antitumor , anti-
diabetic  and antiproliferative activities .
In view of the importance of these heterocycles, various synthetic methods have
been developed for synthesis of kojic acid derivatives. Reddy et al. [13–15]
synthesized kojic acid derivatives from kojic acid, aldehydes and 1,3 diketones or
indoles in a neat reaction. Li et al.  synthesized amide-substituted kojic acid
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11164-015-2419-1)
contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
& G. Narshimha Reddy
Organometallic Group, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of
Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007, India
Res Chem Intermed (2016) 42:5983–5989