ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 12, pp. 1431–1438. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006.
Original Russian Text © K.I. Afanas’ev, G.A. Rubtsova, T.V. Malinina, E.A. Salmenkova, V.T. Omel’chenko, L.A. Zhivotovsky, 2006, published in Genetika, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 12,
Chum salmon is a commercially valuable Paciﬁc
species widely spread in the northern Paciﬁc. Among
Sakhalin salmonids, chum ranks second in abundance
after pink salmon. The salmon stocks are maintained
both by natural reproduction and breeding in hatcher-
ies, and the artiﬁcial reproduction have an ever-increas-
ing effect on the dynamics of chum salmon abundance.
A striking example is a very large stock bred in Japan,
whose commercial return in the 1990s varied from
143 000 to 228 000 t [1–3]. In recent years, due to
changed ﬁsh management conditions, the interest in
chum salmon artiﬁcial reproduction have been increas-
ing also in Russia. Hatcheries that in the 1970s–1980s
preferred to reproduce mainly pink salmon, are making
efforts to restore chum stocks, and in some cases even
attempt to form stocks that were previously nonexistent
or were very small. Efﬁcient management of such pro-
cesses requires thorough understanding of the chum
salmon population genetic structure.
To date, allozyme variability of chum salmon has
been studied in detail virtually over the total range of
this species [4–12]. High heterogeneity of chum
salmon population from various regions has been dem-
onstrated. Based on these data, attempts were made to
estimate the contributions of different shoals in mixed
stocks subject to commercial ﬁshery [13, 14] and assess
the efﬁciency of acclimatization [4, 7, 15, 16]. The
guidelines for optimization of artiﬁcial reproduction
and organization of rational ﬁshery have been worked
out [7, 16–18]. However, in spite of evident advances in
employing allozyme variation in population studies,
some problems still remain. The allozyme methods
require either fresh tissues or freezing as the only way
of their storage upon transportation to the laboratory.
This poses certain limits on sample collection, espe-
cially in remote, poorly accessible regions or localities
without constant power supply.
In view of this, in our population genetic study of
chum populations we used microsatellite loci, which
require less costly procedures of collection, storage,
and transfer of the experimental material.
Microsatellites, or short tandem repeats (STRs) of
2–6-bp sequences varying in the repeat number, are
widely used as markers of genetic polymorphism.
Some of their properties—high heterozygosity and pre-
sumable selective neutrality (which is not always true
for allozyme loci)—make them very convenient for
analysis of genetic population differentiation and pop-
ulation relationships [19, 20].
Microsatellite Variability and Differentiation
of Hatchery Stocks of Chum Salmon
K. I. Afanas’ev
, G. A. Rubtsova
T. V. Malinina
, E. A. Salmenkova
, V. T. Omel’chenko
and L. A. Zhivotovsky
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991;
fax: (495)132-89-62; e-mail; email@example.com
Institute of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041;
fax: (4232) 31-09-00; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received April 12, 2006
—Variability at eight microsatellite loci was examined in ﬁve populations of chum salmon
Walbaum from Sakhalin hatcheries. The population of Kalinino hatchery had the lowest heterozygos-
ity and the lowest average number of alleles per locus. The populations examined exhibited signiﬁcant differ-
= 0.026 on average per locus. The maximum genetic differences were found between the popu-
lations of the Kalinino and the Ado-Tymovo hatcheries; the latter differs from the remaining populations also
by the highest number and high frequencies of speciﬁc alleles. The genetic features of the Taranai hatchery pop-
ulation, observed at microsatellite loci, reﬂect its “mixed” origin.