ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2016, Vol. 52, No. 5, pp. 517–520. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2016.
Published in Russian in Genetika, 2016, Vol. 52, No. 5, pp. 590–594.
The nutria (
) is a large semi
aquatic rodent native to South America; it was intro
duced to Europe at the beginning of the 20th century.
The peak of nutria breeding occurred in the 1970s
and 1980s . The main producers of nutria skins
were Poland (3 million skins per year), the Soviet
Union, and Germany. Among other countries that
bred nutrias in Europe, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
Italy, and Yugoslavia also deserve attention. In the
1990s, the scale of production significantly decreased
as a result of structural changes in the economic sys
The decrease in number of breeding animals led to
the inclusion of nutria in protected genetic resources
in some countries. In Poland, since 2007, eight color
) have been included in the
conservation program coordinated by the National
Research Institute of Animal Production in Poland.
The main goals of the program are to increase the
number of animals to 500 females of
nutrias and 200 females of each of the other
color forms, to save a model of all color forms of
The article was translated by the authors.
nutria, and to preserve the genetic variability of the
protected nutria population .
Despite the implementation of the program, the
number of breeding farms has decreased yearly. In
2013, only three breeding farms were operating in
Poland, with a total number of 139
, and 13
nutria females [5, 6].
Microsatellite (short tandem repeats, STRs) mark
ers are used in the protection of genetic resources. In
the last two decades, genetic markers have become the
most reliable tool in genotyping and have represented
effective support for individual identification and par
entage control. Short tandem repeats represent the
standard for unequivocal determination of genetic
identity and parentage, for studying genetic diversity
in a population, and for selecting animals in breeding
programs. A panel of microsatellite markers could help in
determining genetic diversity levels between colorform
subpopulations and in ascertaining inbreeding levels
within them. So far, 27 microsatellite markers have
been evaluated for nutria .
The aim of the research was to establish a microsat
ellite panel for the nutria population under the genetic
resources conservation program to determine the level
of genetic variability in six color forms bred in Poland.
Microsatellite Markers Polymorphism in the Breeding Nutria
) Population in Poland
, S. apin
, . Migda
, S. Pa ka
, T. Z bek
, and S. N. Sergina
Institute of Animal Sciences, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, 30059 Poland
Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, 30059 Poland
National Research Institute of Animal Production, Balice, Krakow, 32083 Poland
Institute of Biology, Karelian Research Centre,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrozavodsk, 185610 Russia
Received September 4, 2015
—The aim of the research was to establish a microsatellite panel to determine the genetic diversity
within the breeding nutria population in Poland. In the study, 92 animals representing six color forms were
used. Ten fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers were investigated by multicolored capillary electro
phoresis. All the microsatellites were polymorphic. The average heterozygosity observed among the popula
tion was 41%. The mean number of alleles per locus was 9.2. The average heterozygosity observed in the whole
population was lower than expected. This implies that the nutria population deviates from the Hardy–Wein
berg equilibrium. Low
values (from 0.078 to 0.545) of the Garza–Williamson index reveal a reduction of
genetic variation in the investigated population and suggest that the breeding nutria population is remnant.
, genetic resource, microsatellite markers, diversity