Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published online: 16 February 2018
Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of
their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the
use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous
studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastro-
intestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and
probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired
problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences
swine gut microbiota.
Keywords Fermented feed
Swine gut microbiota
Fermented feed (FF) has been widely investigated to reduce
the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) (Plumed-Ferrer
and von Wright 2009) and decrease feed price by using indus-
trial by-products in modern swine production (Wang et al.
2017). Microbial fermentation is capable of degrading
antinutritional factors (ANF) and some feed macronutrients,
providing probiotics and their metabolites (Urlings et al. 1993;
Olstorpe et al. 2010;Kiarieetal.2011). The use of this
microbe-associated feed has been well studied to increase
the bioavailability of feed, improve swine gastrointestinal
functions (Canibe and Jensen 2003), prevent diarrhea (Kiers
et al. 2003), and enhance pig performance and health
(Mukherjee et al. 2016).
Interest in the role of commensal gut microbiota in the
swine gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been growing because
it plays a critical role in the nutrient absorption, metabolism,
and host immune functions (Koh et al. 2015; Valeriano et al.
2017). Therefore, it is important to investigate the character-
istics of swine gut microbiota and how dietary changes influ-
ence the structure and function of the porcine gut microbiota.
FF has great potential to improve gut health and maintain GIT
microbial homeostasis (van Winsen et al. 2001;Wangetal.
2017) and might possibly modulate the host gut microbiota
through dietary manipulation.
Although some reviews have demonstrated microbiota in
either FF or in the swine gut, the influences of FF on swine gut
microbiota have not been well elucidated. Better understand-
ing of the impacts of FF on swine gut microbiota may help us
to steer the porcine gut microbiota through dietary strategies
and reduce AGP use in swine production. This paper mainly
reviews the research progress of the microbiota in both FF and
the porcine GITand how FF affects the porcine gut microbiota
to reduce AGP use in swine production.
Fermented feed and its microbiota
Studies of the replacement of antibiotics and reduction in feed
cost in animal production have driven the development of the
FF. FF not only increases the nutritional quality and utilization
of feed but also provides prebiotics, health-related microbes,
and their metabolites to animals, exerting growth-promoting
effects (Shi et al. 2017a). Supplementation with FF results in a
* Yizhen Wang
National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and
Pollution Prevention and Control, Key Laboratory of Animal
Nutrition and Feed, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of
Animal Nutrition and Feed Science of Zhejiang Province, Institute of
Feed Science, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhang Tang Road,
Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, People’sRepublicofChina
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (2018) 102:2941–2948