Mice hypomorphic for Atr have increased DNA damage and abnormal checkpoint response

Mice hypomorphic for Atr have increased DNA damage and abnormal checkpoint response The ATR checkpoint pathway responds to DNA damage during the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle and is activated early in tumorigenesis. Investigation of ATR’s role in development and tumorigenesis is complicated by the lethality of homozygous knockout mice and the limited effects of heterozygous deficiency. To overcome this limitation, we sought to create mice with a hypomorphic Atr mutation based on the ATR mutation in the human disease Seckel syndrome-1 (SCKL1). Homozygous SCKL1 mice were generated by targeted knock-in of the A → G SCKL1 mutation. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis established that homozygotes have no reduction in Atr protein or increase in missplicing as is seen in humans. Thus, the A → G substitution alone is not sufficient to reproduce in mice the effects that are seen in humans. However, homozygous SCKL1 mice that retain the neo cassette used for targeting have an estimated 66-82% reduction in total Atr protein levels due to missplicing into the neo cassette. Under conditions of APH-induced replication stress, primary fibroblasts from homozygous mice displayed an increase in overall chromosome damage and an increase in gaps and breaks at specific common fragile sites. In addition, mutant cells display a significant delay in checkpoint induction and an increase in DNA damage as assayed by Chk1 phosphorylation and γ-H2ax levels, respectively. These mice provide a novel model system for studies of Atr deficiency and replication stress. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Mammalian Genome Springer Journals

Mice hypomorphic for Atr have increased DNA damage and abnormal checkpoint response

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/mice-hypomorphic-for-atr-have-increased-dna-damage-and-abnormal-XvZwzBvlpH
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Copyright
Copyright © 2009 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Subject
Life Sciences; Zoology ; Anatomy ; Cell Biology
ISSN
0938-8990
eISSN
1432-1777
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00335-009-9195-4
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The ATR checkpoint pathway responds to DNA damage during the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle and is activated early in tumorigenesis. Investigation of ATR’s role in development and tumorigenesis is complicated by the lethality of homozygous knockout mice and the limited effects of heterozygous deficiency. To overcome this limitation, we sought to create mice with a hypomorphic Atr mutation based on the ATR mutation in the human disease Seckel syndrome-1 (SCKL1). Homozygous SCKL1 mice were generated by targeted knock-in of the A → G SCKL1 mutation. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis established that homozygotes have no reduction in Atr protein or increase in missplicing as is seen in humans. Thus, the A → G substitution alone is not sufficient to reproduce in mice the effects that are seen in humans. However, homozygous SCKL1 mice that retain the neo cassette used for targeting have an estimated 66-82% reduction in total Atr protein levels due to missplicing into the neo cassette. Under conditions of APH-induced replication stress, primary fibroblasts from homozygous mice displayed an increase in overall chromosome damage and an increase in gaps and breaks at specific common fragile sites. In addition, mutant cells display a significant delay in checkpoint induction and an increase in DNA damage as assayed by Chk1 phosphorylation and γ-H2ax levels, respectively. These mice provide a novel model system for studies of Atr deficiency and replication stress.

Journal

Mammalian GenomeSpringer Journals

Published: Jun 7, 2009

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off