An experimental evaluation is reported of some methods for improving the surface flatness of thick Cu films grown by electroplating. These are (1) placing an insulator mask of suitable diameter and thickness near the cathode surface, (2) placing extra cathodes near the main one, (3) rotating the cathode, (4) changing to an anode of another shape, and (5) passing an alternating current with a nonzero dc component. The surface flatness of Cu films thus obtained is measured in absolute and relative terms.
Russian Microelectronics – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 30, 2007
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