METHODS FOR EVALUATING EFFECTIVE MORTARS
AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR LAYING A HEATING UNIT LINING
V. V. Slovikovskii
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 7, pp. 34 – 37, July 2009.
Original article submitted December 17, 2008.
Results are provided for the effective development of procedures for determining the properties of mortars,
protective coatings, and bonding elements, consisting of refractory objects and mortars for lining a rotary
Waelz kiln, horizontal converters, reverbatory furnaces, and other heating units. Optimum compositions are
developed for refractory adhesives, mixes and cements using effective methods for evaluating mortars and
protective coatings. The use of protective coatings and mortars makes it possible to prolong the working life of
units by 25 – 50% and thereby reduce the number of ongoing and major repairs of a unit lining and to obtain a
tangible economic effect.
Keywords: thermal stresses, melt reagents, laying element, chromium-magnesia powder, fuzed material pow
der, orthophosphoric acid, refractory adhesive.
The main purpose of protective coatings is protection of
a lining or metal casing from chemical or thermal effects of
melt reagents . Laying mortars:
– provide a reduction in thermal stresses in a lay-up dur-
ing unit operation, that sometimes exceed the strength of re-
fractory objects (Fig. 1) ;
– prevent penetration of melt reagents into a lining joint,
thereby reducing the refractory – melt contact surface by a
factor of 8 – 12, excluding melt from the casing of a unit and
creation of an emergency situation, and this is particularly
important in processing materials with low viscosity, con
taining zinc, lead, antimony, germanium, etc.;
– with their use a lay-up forms a monolithic body,
rounding of the lining and refractory objects, and this consid
erably reduces the possibility of individual lining elements
falling out, leading to breakage of large areas of a lining;
– a lay-up – mortar system may be cooled and heated at
a faster rate (a factor of two to three) without loss of lining
mechanical strength (see Fig. 4 in article ), and this is par
ticularly important in a periodic action unit (horizontal con
verters, rotary kilns, ladles);
– a monolithic lay-up reduces gas discharge from units
through a lay-up during furnace operation under pressure and
prevents dilution of gases used in the production of various
Currently 80% of nonferrous metallurgy linings are pro-
duced without the use of mortars and protective coatings, and
this leads to a considerable increase in the amount of repair
work, consumption of expensive refractory objects, and re-
duction in unit loading factor, disruption of enterprise ecol-
ogy, and emergency situations. The laying mortars used, i.e.
chamotte mortar, magnesia mortar in water glass, have a lim-
ited range and low physicomechanical properties that do not
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 4, 2009
1083-4877/09/5004-0273 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
GOUVPO UGTU Ekaterinburg, Russia.
Fig. 1. Dependence of thermal stresses s that arise in a refractory
lay-up on bonding joint thickness.