1067-4136/04/3502- © 2004
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2004, pp. 65–70. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 2, 2004, pp. 83–89.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2004 by Trubetskoi, Galchenko.
Deterioration of ecosystems caused by economic
activities occurs differently in different natural zones,
depending on the geographic region and the complexity
and productivity of ecosystems. Anthropogenic factors
alter both the structural organization and functional
characteristics of ecosystems. Depending on the type of
, 1993), the structure becomes
either more or less complex; sometimes, the structure is
entirely transformed, and the so-called technogeosys-
tems are formed, which basically differ from natural
systems (Fig. 1).
In terms of environmental impact, the mining indus-
try differs from other industries in that it simultaneously
affects the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and
biosphere. The effects on the last three spheres are inev-
itable consequences of the mining of ores or minerals;
since the location of mining enterprises is solely deter-
mined by geological factors, any ecosystem existing on
the earth may appear to be located in the affected zone.
Set in this way, the general problem of the environmental
safety in the case of mineral resource development can
be broken down into several relatively independent com-
ponents determined by the same ultimate goal, and the
global contradiction between the technosphere and the
biosphere is overcome via decomposing it into a set of
local contradictions solved using different methodologi-
Methodological Basis of Ecological Safety Standards
for the Technogenic Impact of Mineral Resource Exploitation
K. N. Trubetskoi and Yu. P. Galchenko
Institute of Complex Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Received October 17, 2002
—A new methodological approach to the development of biological and technological safety stan-
dards for the impact of underground mining on the natural biota is proposed.
: ecological standards, methodology, impact of industrial activity, technological standards, mineral
Functional Simpliﬁcation Complication
Scheme of the impact of an anthropogenic factor on an ecosystem.