Metabolomic profiling is becoming an increasingly important technique in the larger field of systems biology by allowing the simultaneous measurement of thousands of small molecules participating in and resulting from cellular reactions. In this way, metabolomics presents an opportunity to observe the physiological state of a system, which may provide the ability to monitor the whole of cellular metabolism as the technology progresses. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita has not previously been explored with regard to metabolite composition. To develop a better understanding of G. margarita and the influences of its endosymbiont Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum, a metabolomic analysis was applied to quiescent and germinated spores with and without endobacteria. Over 100 metabolites were identified and greater than 2600 unique unidentified spectral features were observed. Multivariate analysis of the metabolomes was performed, and a differentiation between all metabolic states of spores and spores hosting the endobacteria was observed. The known metabolites were recruited to many biochemical pathways, with many being involved in maintenance of the antioxidant potential, tyrosine metabolism, and melanin production. Each of the pathways had higher metabolite abundances in the presence of the endosymbiont. These metabolomics data also agree with previously reported transcriptomics results demonstrating the capability of this technique to confirm hypotheses and showing the feasibility of multi-omic approaches for the study of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their endobacterial communities. Challenges still exist in metabolomic analysis, e.g., the identification of compounds is demanding due to incomplete libraries. A metabolomics technique to probe the effects of bacterial endosymbionts on fungal physiology is presented herein, and this method is useful for hypothesis generation as well as testing as noted above.
Mycorrhiza – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 2, 2018
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