Cytoplasm Arginine Vacuole Gap1p Arginine Vba2p Dur3p Urea Ornithine Nucleus Dur1,2p Dur4p Gln3p-Ure2p Proline Urea NH3 CO2 Ethanol Truncated Ure2p Gln3p Translation Ethyl carbamate Keywords Arginine uptake · Brewing · Ethyl carbamate · Gln3p · Nitrogen catabolite repression 1992). Intracellular urea is then degraded into CO and NH Introduction 2 4 by urea amidolyase (Dur1,2p) or exported by urea membrane transporter Dur4p (Coulon et al. 2006), while ornithine, Fermentation by S. cerevisiae plays an important role in wine another product of arginine degradation, can be converted production, although this process yields a few potentially to proline by ornithine aminotransferase (Car2p) and δ-1- harmful byproducts (Ordonez et al. 2013; Wu et al. 2012). pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (Pro3p) (Ljungdahl and Among them is ethyl carbamate (EC), which is considered Daignan-Fornier 2012). Extracellular urea can be imported as a harmful carcinogen (Fu et al. 2010; Lachenmeier 2007). into cell by Dur3p. Earlier studies showed urea is the most important precursor Numerous physical, chemical, enzymatic, and metabolic of EC in grape wine, sake and rice wine (Weber and Shary- engineering methods have been reported to reduce the accu- pov 2009). The formation of urea is influenced mainly by mulation of urea and EC during wine production by using arginine metabolism, urea transport
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 13, 2018
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