1067-4136/02/3306- $27.00 © 2002
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2002, pp. 388–391. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 6, 2002, pp. 412–415.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2002 by V. Tuganaev, A. Tuganaev.
The site of the ancient city of Idnakar is among the
most signiﬁcant archaeological monuments of the
Kama region (Ivanova, 1998). According to historians,
Idnakar was a trade, fortiﬁcation, social, and adminis-
trative center of the northern Udmurts in the Middle
Ages (Ivanova, 2000). The site is on an ancient elevated
plateau composed of horizontal layers of variegated
rocks dated to the Tatarian Stage of the Permian.
According to the characteristics of the plant cover,
Idnakar and two other sites of lesser historical impor-
tance (Gur’yakar and Ves’yakar) are in the Kama–
Pechora–Western Ural subprovince of the Ural–Sibe-
rian province of the Eurasian coniferous region (
, 1980). According to landscape-geographic
zoning, the entire right bank of the Cheptsa River
belongs to the Transcheptsa south-taiga upland region.
The average annual air temperature is 1.3
C, with the
sum of active temperatures reaching 1600–1750
frost-free period is 110–115 days, and annual precipita-
tion is 600–650 mm (Rysin, 1999). Soddy–podzolic
and soddy strongly podzolic medium loamy soils pre-
vail at dry plain sites. However, soddy calcareous soils
overgrown with a complex of nemoral and forest–
steppe plant species sometimes occur in high ﬂat areas
on the primary coast of the Cheptsa River (Tuganaev
The people who inhabited the Cheptsa basin in the
Middle Ages were not only hunters, gatherers, and ﬁsh-
ermen, but also succeeded in agriculture and animal
husbandry (Ivanova, 1998). During excavations at
Idnakar, Ves’yakar, and Gur’yakar, samples of seeds
and grain dated from the 9th to the 13th centuries AD
were found. Some of them were processed, and the
results were published (Tuganaev and Eﬁmova, 1981;
Tuganaev and Kireeva, 1985). Professor M.G. Ivanova
kindly supplied us with 38 samples of fruits and seeds.
In addition, the samples of buried soils dated to the
same period were taken from the same site.
The purpose of this work was to reconstruct medi-
eval agroecosystems in the area of the present-day city
of Glazov, in the Middle Preural region. To this end, we
analyzed carpological material from Idnakar (38 sam-
ples) and soils buried under an earth rampart (28 sam-
ples, 500 g each, taken from the upper 25- to 30-cm
The samples of seeds and fruits ranged in volume
from 120 to 240 mm
. Their morphological analysis
was performed under an MBS-1 dissecting microscope.
To identify plant species, we used manuals and atlases
of seeds and fruits (Len’kov, 1932;
Kul’turnaya ﬂora SSSR
Dobrokhotov, 1961; Maisuryan, 1964), identiﬁcation
tables from the works of Russian and foreign research-
ers (Bertsch and Bertsch, 1948; Yanushevich, 1976;
Matthias and Schultze-Motel, 1971; Wasylikowa,
1991), and the collections of seeds of cultivated plants
and weeds kept at the Udmurt State University.
Samples of the soil buried under an artiﬁcial earth
mound were taken from the humus horizon, at depths
reaching 25–30 cm from its surface. The mound ranged
in height from 18 to 144 cm, and the upper horizon of
the buried soil was fairly easy to distinguish. The sam-
ples were analyzed by the methods recommended by
the Central Institute of Agrochemical Service (Kuz-
netsov, 1997) to determine the following parameters:
the total and exchangeable acidity; the sum of absorbed
bases; the base saturation degree; and the contents of
humus, phosphorus, and potassium.
Medieval Agroecosystems (9th–13th Centuries) in the Region
of the Present-Day City of Glazov (Udmurt Republic)
V. V. Tuganaev and A. V. Tuganaev
Udmurt State University, Universitetskaya ul. 1, Izhevsk, 426034 Russia
Received July 18, 2001
—Paleoethnobotanical materials and buried soils from the site of the ancient settlement of Idnakar and
neighboring archaeological monuments were analyzed to reconstruct the agroecosystems of the 9th through the
13th centuries AD near the present-day city of Glazov. The results provided data on the main features of the
agroecosystem structure and composition, climate, and agriculture in the Middle Ages.
: agroecosystems, polydominant agrocenoses, weediness of crops, cultivated plants and weeds,
archaeological soils, paleoethnobotany.