ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 488−493. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © I.A. Vorsina, T.F. Grigor’eva, T.A. Udalova, S.V. Vosmerikov, N.Z. Lyakhov, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88,
No. 3, pp. 484−489.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Mechanochemical Preparation of Polymeric Composites
Consisting of Polyamide and Clay Materials
I. A. Vorsina, T. F. Grigor’eva, T. A. Udalova, S. V. Vosmerikov, and N. Z. Lyakhov
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk, 630128 Russia
Received April 2, 2015
Abstract—The mechanism of mechanochemical formation of composites consisting of PA-6 polyamide and clay
minerals (pyrophyllite, kaolinite) was studied by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Composites
with chemical bonding between the components are formed by activation of polyamide–pyrophyllite mixtures
at polymer content с ≤ 10% and of polyamide–kaolinite mixtures at с ≤ 5%. Increased polymer content of the
starting mixture “inhibits” the disordering of the silicate structure in the course of activation. Modiﬁ cation of
polymers with mechanochemically formed polyamide/clay mineral composites improves the physicomechanical
characteristics of the composite materials obtained.
It is known [1, 2] that introduction of various modiﬁ ers
into industrial oils signiﬁ cantly enhances the tribotechni-
cal characteristics of oils, their stability, corrosion and
viscosity characteristics. Polymer/silicate composites are
widely used as such modiﬁ ers [1–6]. For example, nano-
as modiﬁ er enhances the resistance of the com-
posites to segregation and agglutination . Nano-SiO
particles modiﬁ ed with poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone exert
the maximal stabilizing effect on the viscosity properties
of industrial oils . Introduction of clay minerals into
polymers, in particular, of kaolinite into PA-6 polyamide
enhances their resistance to thermal oxidative degrada-
tion, and introduction of talc (pyrophyllite) is a cheap way
to enhance the degree of cross-linking and reduce the ther-
mal deformation with preservation of physicomechanical
and electrical properties . Kaolinite and pyrophyllite
are also widely used as additives in production of cable
rubber, technical pastes, and automobile coatings .
An environmentally clean method for preparing such
composites is the mechanochemical method by which it
is possible to perform syntheses that are virtually impos-
sible when using traditional methods of “wet” chemistry.
In particular, it becomes possible to perform surface
reactions of inert supports, e.g., silicates with various
organic compounds, including polymers. It was demon-
strated by the example of mechanical activation of sys-
tems consisting of organic optical isomers and inorganic
powders (silicates, oxides)  that such reactions occur
via mechanochemical interaction of an optical isomer
(phenylalanine) with active sites generated on the surface
of oxide and silicate powders in the course of activation.
It is known  that the structure of the surface layer of
the polymer on polymer–support boundaries determines
the physicochemical, mechanical, and tribological
properties of composite materials. Therefore, studies
of the polymer–support bonds formed in the course of
compounding are topical and necessary for understanding
and evaluating the effect from the modiﬁ er introduction.
However, such data for polymeric composites are limited.
In this study we examined by IR spectroscopy and X-ray
diffraction analysis the mechanism of mechanochemical
compounding of composites consisting of polyamides
and clay minerals with the aim of enhancing the
physicomechanical properties of the materials.
Experiments were performed with clay minerals:
[ТМ, GOST (State
Standard) 52918–2008], kaolinite Al