ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2011, Vol. 47, No. 5, pp. 610–614. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2011.
Original Russian Text © V.A. Dragavtsev, E.V. Dragavtseva, 2011, published in Genetika, 2011, Vol. 47, No. 5, pp. 691–696.
TimoffeeffResovsky  noted in 1925 that domi
nance or recessiveness is not a specific property of a
gene itself, but rather depends on the genotypic envi
ronment of the gene.
In 1994, Mitrofanov  observed that it became
clear when the genetic code had been deciphered that
a gene itself cannot interact with other genes. All
known types of interactions are mediated by the char
acters that are controlled by genes. In other words,
dominance is a property of a character rather than of a
gene . Based on ample observations, dominance
shifts are known for almost all commercially signifi
cant traits of spring wheat from different geographic
localities (from the Urals to TransBaikalia and from
Tyumen’ to Ust’Kamenogorsk) . Dominance
shifts of much the same amplitude as between geo
graphical localities were detected in each locality in
different years of generating blocks of the diallelic
cross matrix of the DIAS cooperative program.
These findings contradict the general convention
of still terming genes (alleles) dominant or recessive in
the majority of genetic publications and in all available
In 1984, the two well known genetic models—Men
del’s model  and the model proposed by Fisher,
Mazer, and Wright —were supplemented with a third
model of an ecological genetic organization of quantita
tive traits (MEGOQT) , which is based on an analysis
of 5 million measurements of productivity parameters in
wheat from nine geographical localities of West Siberia
over 2 years (a diallelic matrix of
18 traits measured for each plant).
The model made it possible to understand the
nature of and to construct systems for predicting
transgressions, ecologydependent heterosis, the signs
and magnitudes of genotypic and genetic (additive)
correlations, and effects of the genotype–environ
ment interaction (GEI) and to identify the mecha
nisms of changes in the number of genes for productiv
ity traits, the amplitude of their genetic variation,
genetic homeostasis of harvests (plasticity of culti
vars), etc. . From 1984 to 2008, 23 corollaries of the
MEGOQT were studied both theoretically and exper
imentally [8, 9].
In 2008, the functionality of the model was verified
at the molecular level in collaboration with German
geneticists , and the model consequently became a
theory of the ecological genetic organization of quan
titative traits (TEGOQT).
In 2008, the TEGOQT was included in
Dictionary of Terms Used in General and Molec
ular Biology, General and Applied Genetics, Breed
ing, DNA Technology, and
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In this work, we checked the theoretical assump
tion of dominance shifts (one of the TEGOQT) corol
laries) with the experimental data available in the
DIAS program .
The TEGOQT suggests that every complex plant
productivity trait subject to the GEI effect is deter
Mechanisms Sustaining Displacements of Quantitative Trait
Dominance in Spring Wheat of Various Geographical Regions
V. A. Dragavtsev and E. V. Dragavtseva
Agrophysical Institute, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, St. Petersburg, 195220 Russia
email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Received August 1, 2009; in final form, March 29, 2010
—The mechanisms of displacements of quantitative trait dominance in spring wheat are discussed
in terms of the theory of the ecological genetic organization of quantitative traits. A conventional interpreta
tion of displacements of genotype points on Hayman’s graphs in terms of classical diallelic crosses does not
require that limiting environmental factors be monitored during the ontogenetic development of quantitative
traits or that changes in the set of traitdetermining genes upon a change of the limiting factor be considered.
Analysis of the experimental data of the DIAS program in terms of the new theory of the ecological genetic
organization of quantitative traits revealed two mechanisms that determine displacements of genotype points
along the regression line on Hayman’s graphs. One is a metric scale effect, which arises as a result of a corre
lation of mean values and variances of a trait in rows of the parents and F
hybrids in the diallelic matrix. The
other is an environmentdepending change arising in the set and number of genes that underlie a multicom
ponent trait and determine their final value in a multiplicative manner.
MODELS AND METHODS