The membrane lipid environment and lipid signaling pathways are potentially involved in the modulation of the activity of the cardiac Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX). In the present study biophysical mechanisms of interactions of amphiphiles with the NCX and the functional consequences were examined. For this purpose, intracellular Ca2+ concentration jumps were generated by laser-flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes and Na+-Ca2+ exchange currents (I Na/Ca) were recorded in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The inhibitory effect of amphiphiles increased with the length of the aliphatic chain between C7 and C10 and was more potent with cationic or anionic head groups than with uncharged head groups. Long-chain cationic amines (C12) exhibited a cut-off in their efficacy in I Na/Ca inhibition. Analysis of the time-course, comparison with the Ni2+-induced I Na/Ca block and confocal laser scanning microscopy experiments with fluorescent lipid analogs (C6- and C12-NBD-labeled analogs) suggested that amphiphiles need to be incorporated into the membrane. Furthermore, NCX block appears to require transbilayer movement of the amphiphile to the inner leaflet (“flip”). We conclude that both, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between the lipids and the NCX may be important factors for the modulation by lipids and could be relevant in cardiac diseases where the lipid metabolism is altered.
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 1, 2004
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