Phospholipid-DNA complexes were made of the cationic triester derivative of phosphatidylcholine, EDOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine), by varying conditions of complex formation, in particular, the rate and direction of mixing, as well as by changing the mode of dispersing the lipid (extrusion or vortexing). The biological effects of variations in the formulation procedure were assessed by measuring transfection activity and cell association in cultures of BHK cells. Formulation procedures generally had little effect on cell association, but had marked effects on transfection efficiency. Transfection varied from effectively nil to extremely efficient with what appeared to be modest changes in formulation procedure. Formulation procedures also had significant effects on average sizes and size distributions of lipoplexes as determined by dynamic light scattering. Among the four possibilities of rapid or slow mixing combined with the two possible directions of mixing, slow addition of DNA to lipid gave results that differed significantly from the other three modes. In the case of vortexed lipid, the latter procedure was much less satisfactory than the other three, whereas in the case of extruded lipid, it was the only mode that produced satisfactory transfection. The factors that determine the difference in lipoplex properties can be identified as both geometric and physical. The geometric factor has to do with the symmetries of the participating units. There are three physical factors that are critical: the difference in vesicle stability upon interaction with DNA, the time dependence of interdiffusion of the components relative to that of vesicle rupture, and difference in input concentrations. These factors determine lipoplex size and, as already also shown by others, lipoplex size influences transfection efficiency.
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 1, 2004
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