ISSN 10674136, Russian Journal of Ecology, 2015, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 365–369. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © T.Yu. Markina, G.V. Benkovskaya, 2015, published in Ekologiya, 2015, No. 4, pp. 294–299.
The problem of stable reproduction of cultures and
strains is of paramount importance for practical
breeding of insects for laboratory and technological
purposes. Considering the special conditions under
which such groups are kept, we should agree that com
parisons of artificial populations with natural ones
should be made very carefully. Nevertheless, the rules of
population biology apply also to artificial populations
and laboratory cultures, which allows them to be used as
models for studying the mechanisms that provide for
homeostasis, the stable maintenance of viability and
reproduction in particular groups of individuals (Zlotin
and Golovko, 1998; de Weerd and Verbrugge, 2011).
Under laboratory conditions, the influence of the
principal abiotic factors is usually standardized to the
maximum extent, and food resources are usually unlim
ited. The leading factors of natural selection under such
conditions are probably population density, factors that
depend upon it, and the established genetic structure.
Artificial selection for some integral character, such as
lifespan, makes it possible to assess the population
structure of insects and reveal mechanisms of its
changes and role of particular intrapopulation groups of
individuals in the maintenance of homeostasis.
In this study, we compare the result of selection for
increased or decreased lifespan in laboratory popula
tions of the silkworm,
(Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the housefly,
Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae), at
early stages of selection.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
In experiments with the silkworm we used the
Belokokonnaya1 improved breed. Individual selec
tion for adult females with the longest or shortest
lifespan was performed over five generations. Eggs
from the longest or shortestlived individuals were
selected for incubation. The biological parameters of
the biomaterial were determined by compiling variants
with three replications of 50 mg (108–110 individuals)
of silkworms (larvae) hatched less than 24 h ago in
each variant. The hydrothermal conditions under
which the larvae were fed complied with standard seri
cultural norms recommended for Ukraine (Golovko
et al., 1992).
Estimation of vital parameters of the silkworm.
was defined as the interval between
emergence from pupa and death; each female was
placed in an individual packet. A total of 20 individu
als were selected in each variant.
Survival rate of silkworms
was defined as the per
centage of healthy spun cocoons relative to the initial
number of silkworms taken for feeding.
was calculated as the number of
eggs per clutch in each packet with longlived or short
lived females. All eggs laid by the female before its
death were counted.
Breeding of housefly lines.
A laboratory population
L. (S) derived from the Cooper
line and kindly provided by Dr. S.A. Roslavtseva
(Research Institute of Disinfectology, Moscow, Russia)
was used as source material. Larvae were kept in a sub
strate of moistened bran (200–400 individuals per
container of around 0.25 L); adults were kept in poly
caprolactam cages (
cm, 150–300 individ
uals per cage) and fed dry milk formula (Roslavtseva,
1978). All experiments were performed under stan
dard conditions (room temperature
Mechanisms of Homeostasis Maintenance in Laboratory
Populations of Insects
T. Yu. Markina
and G. V. Benkovskaya
Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, ul. Artema 29, Kharkiv, 61002 Ukraine
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Oktyabrya 71, Ufa, 450054 Russia
email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Received July 15, 2014
—Comparative data are provided on the strategies of homeostasis maintenance in laboratory popu
lations of the silkworm
and the housefly
It is shown that selection for lifespan
is associated with differentiation of reproductive strategies.
, laboratory populations, lifespan, selection, homeostasis