The concept of polarity was the starting point for the attempts of many investigators to understand the principles of differentiation, because the polar organization underlies specific three-dimensional structure of the organism and provides for the integrity and coordination of its functions. The polarity axes are established at the stage of zygote, extending to the developing embryo, and they “vectorize” subsequent plant growth and development. Polarization of cells and tissues is crucial for plant morphogenesis, because the emerging morphogenetic gradients provide the basis for differential genome activity at various stages of plant development. This review deals with the polarity phenomena and the mechanisms of symmetry axis formation at the level of cells and plant tissues. The roles of electrical gradients, Ca2+ ions, auxin, cytoskeleton, ROP-proteins, phosphoinositides, and microRNA in polarization of cells and tissues are considered.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 15, 2012
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