Mechanical Force and Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Activate Yeast TRPY1 in Parallel

Mechanical Force and Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Activate Yeast TRPY1 in Parallel The ability to sense mechanical and osmotic stimuli is vital to all organisms from mammals to bacteria. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion-channel family have attracted intense attention for their involvement in mechanosensation. The yeast homologue TRPY1 can clearly be activated by hypertonic shock in vivo and by stretch force under patch clamp. Like its animal counterparts, TRPY1 is polymodal, being gated by membrane stretch force and by cytoplasmic Ca2+. Here, we investigated how these two gating principles interact. We found that stretch force can induce some channel activation without cytoplasmic Ca2+. Tens of micromolar Ca2+ greatly enhance the observed force-induced activities, with open probabilities following well the Boltzmann distribution, in which the two gating energies are summed as exponents. To map this formalism to structures, we found Ca2+-binding proteins such as calmodulin or calcineurin to be unnecessary. However, removing a dense cluster of negative charges in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of TRPY1 greatly diminishes the Ca2+ activation as well as its influence on force activation. We also found a strategic point upstream of this charge cluster, at which insertion of amino acids weakens Ca2+ activation considerably but leaves the mechanosensitivity nearly intact. These results led to a structure–function model in which Ca2+ binding to the cytoplasmic domain and stretching of the membrane-embedded domain both generate gating force, reaching the gate in parallel. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Membrane Biology Springer Journals

Mechanical Force and Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Activate Yeast TRPY1 in Parallel

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/mechanical-force-and-cytoplasmic-ca2-activate-yeast-trpy1-in-parallel-TeO74dEWFg
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Copyright
Copyright © 2009 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Subject
Life Sciences; Human Physiology ; Biochemistry, general
ISSN
0022-2631
eISSN
1432-1424
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00232-009-9153-9
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches

$49/month

Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

$588

$360/year

billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial