ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 12, pp. 2029−2034. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Mechanical and Dielectric Behavior
of Poly(vinylidene)–poly(arylene ether nitrile) Composites
as Film Capacitors for Energy Storage Applications
J. J. Wei, L. K. Yan, J. L. Song, and M. Chao
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang’an University,
no. 161, Middle Rd, Yanta District, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province, 710064 P.R. China
Received December 15, 2015
Abstract—Novel polymer composites PEN/PVDF were prepared from poly(arylene ether nitrile) (PEN) and
poly(vinylidene ﬂ uoride) (PVDF) via solution mixing. Due to the toughening effect of PVDF, PEN/PVDF blends
with 5 wt % PVDF exhibit higher tensile strength (106 MPa) and breaking elongation (8.09%) than pure PEN
does. Because of introduction of PVDF and interfacial polarization, the dielectric constant of PEN/PVDF blends
at 1 kHz and room temperature increases from 3.3 to 4.5 with increasing content of PVDF. The dissipation factor
(tanδ) of PEN/PVDF blends is relatively low (<0.04) in a very wide frequency range from 250 Hz to 100 kHz.
The PEN/PVDF blends show certain piezoelectric behavior (d
from 0.9 to 1 pC/N) due to the contribution of
PVDF. After polarization, the piezoelectric coefﬁ cient d
somewhat increases. The results suggest that
PEN/PVDF blends will have potential application in electronic information ﬁ elds, especially in ﬁ lm capacitors.
The text was submitted by the authors in English.
Dielectric polymer films with high permittivity
can store more electric energy compared to those with
lower permittivity and can be used in electronic devices.
Among them, polymer ﬁ lm capacitors receive increasing
attention in electronics due to their widespread use, such
as termination, energy storage, decoupling, alternating/
direct (ac/dc) current conversion, and ﬁ ltering . In
addition, dielectric polymer ﬁ lms have many applications
in aerospace engineering, air imaging microphones, and
underwater navigation [2–5].
Ceramics exhibit very high permittivity, stiffness, and
heat resistance. For example, BaTiO
(BT) has relatively
high permittivity, exceeding 1000. In 2000, Subramanian
et al. found that calcium copper titanate (CCTO) had
higher permittivity, about 9200, at 1 MHz with only weak
temperature dependence in the range from 100 to 600 K,
which is very desirable for many applications in electronic
materials . It is important that the permittivity of
CCTO correlates with its particle size and can reach up
to 100000 at the nanometric size. Therefore, ceramic
particles such as BT, PZT (Pb-based lanthanum-doped
zirconate titanates), and CCTO are often used as inorganic
ﬁ llers for blending with a polymer matrix to prepare
dielectric composites with high permittivity [6–10].
Although ceramic/polymer composites have relatively
high permittivity at higher content of ﬁ llers, the ﬂ exibility
and processability of composites become poor in this
case. The interfacial polarization of composites will also
increase with increasing content of ceramic ﬁ llers, which
will lead to an increase in the dissipation factor (tan δ)
and is a disadvantage for capacitors. Furthermore, it is
difﬁ cult to avoid structural defects in composite ﬁ lms.
Therefore, pure polymer composite is an appropriate
candidate for ﬁ lm capacitors in some special situations
requiring ﬂ exibility.
PVDF and its copolymers as a family of highly func-
tional polymer systems are the best known ferroelectric
polymers and have been used widely in electronic actua-
tors and sensors [11, 12]. This is due to their advantages
including high permittivity, piezoelectricity, mechanical