Measurements of velocity and wall shear stress fluctuations were made in an external turbulent boundary layer developed over a towed surface-piercing flat plate. An array of eight flush-mounted wall shear stress sensors was used to compute the space-time correlation function. A methodology for in situ calibration of the sensors for ship hydrodynamic applications is presented. The intensity of the wall shear stress fluctuations, τ rms/τ avg was measured as 0.25 and 0.36 for R θ =3,150 and 2,160 respectively. The probability density is shown to exhibit positive skewness, and lack of flow reversals at the wall. Correlations between velocity and wall shear stress fluctuations are shown to collapse with outer boundary layer length and velocity scales, verifying the existence of large-scale coherent structures which convect and decay along the wall at an angle of inclination varying from 10 to 13° over the range of Reynolds numbers investigated. The wall shear stress convection velocity determined from narrow band correlation measurements is shown to scale with outer variables. The space-time correlation of the wall shear is shown to exhibit a well-defined convective ridge, and to decay 80% over approximately 3δ for R θ =3,150.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 19, 2002
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