Sinus lift elevation restores bone mass at the maxilla in edentulate patients before the placement of dental implants. It consists of opening the lateral side of the sinus and grafting beta-tricalcium phosphate granules (β-TCP) under the olfactory membrane. Bone biopsies were obtained in five patients after 60 weeks. They were embedded undecalcified in poly(methyl methacrylate) (pMMA); blocks were analyzed by nanocomputed tomography (nanoCT); specific areas were studied by Raman microspectroscopy. Remnants of β-TCP were osseointegrated and covered with mineralized bone; osteoid tissue was also filling the inner porosity. Macrophages having engulfed numerous β-TCP grains were observed in marrow spaces. β-TCP was identified by nanoCT as osseointegrated particles and as granules in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Raman microspectroscopy permitted to compare the spectra of β-TCP and bone in different areas. The ratio of the ~820 cm−1 band of pMMA (–CH2 groups) on the ν1 phosphate band at 960 cm−1 reflected tissue hydration because water was substituted by MMA during histological processing. In bone, the ratio of the ~960 cm−1 phosphate to the amide 1 band and the ratio ν2 phosphate band by the 1240–1250 amide III band reflect the mineralization degree. Specific bands of β-TCP were found in osseointegrated β-TCP granules and in the grains phagocytized by the macrophages. The hydration degree was maximal for β-TCP phagocytized by macrophages. Raman microspectroscopy associated with nanoCT is a powerful tool in the analysis of the biomaterial degradation and osseointegration.
Calcified Tissue International – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 26, 2017
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