“Matreshka” genes with alternative reading frames

“Matreshka” genes with alternative reading frames Although a relatively small part of the human genome contains protein encoding genes, the latest data on the discovery of alternative open reading frames (ORFs) in conventional mRNAs has highlighted the expanded coding potential of these genes. Until recently, it was believed that each mRNA transcript encodes a single protein. Recent proteogenomics data indicate the existence of exceptions to this rule, which greatly changes the usual meaning of the term “gene.” The topology of a gene with overlapping ORFs resembles a Russian “matreshka” toy. There are two levels of “matreshka” genetic systems. First, the chromosomal level, when the “nested” gene is located within introns and exons of the main chromosomal gene, both in the sense and antisense orientation relative to the external gene. The second level is a mature mRNA molecule containing overlapping ORFs or an ORF with an alternative start codon. In this review, we will focus on the properties of “matreshka” genes of the second type and methods for their detection and verification. Particular attention is paid to the biological properties of the polypeptides encoded by these genes. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Russian Journal of Genetics Springer Journals

“Matreshka” genes with alternative reading frames

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Publisher
Pleiades Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 by Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Subject
Biomedicine; Human Genetics; Animal Genetics and Genomics; Microbial Genetics and Genomics
ISSN
1022-7954
eISSN
1608-3369
D.O.I.
10.1134/S1022795416020149
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Although a relatively small part of the human genome contains protein encoding genes, the latest data on the discovery of alternative open reading frames (ORFs) in conventional mRNAs has highlighted the expanded coding potential of these genes. Until recently, it was believed that each mRNA transcript encodes a single protein. Recent proteogenomics data indicate the existence of exceptions to this rule, which greatly changes the usual meaning of the term “gene.” The topology of a gene with overlapping ORFs resembles a Russian “matreshka” toy. There are two levels of “matreshka” genetic systems. First, the chromosomal level, when the “nested” gene is located within introns and exons of the main chromosomal gene, both in the sense and antisense orientation relative to the external gene. The second level is a mature mRNA molecule containing overlapping ORFs or an ORF with an alternative start codon. In this review, we will focus on the properties of “matreshka” genes of the second type and methods for their detection and verification. Particular attention is paid to the biological properties of the polypeptides encoded by these genes.

Journal

Russian Journal of GeneticsSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 31, 2016

References

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