We present experimental results showing that large amplitude capillary waves at a liquid–vapour interface substantially enhance the interfacial heat and mass transfer. The experiments have been conducted in a circular cylinder that is partially filled with a wetting liquid of low boiling point temperature and pressurized by its vapour. The interfacial capillary waves are sub-harmonically excited by oscillating the circular cylinder at 50 Hz with forcing amplitude A in the direction normal to the liquid surface. The upper part of the test cell containing the vapour is heated to a temperature slightly below the boiling point temperature at the operating pressure. When the interface is at rest, the pressure decrease due to condensation is small. However, in the presence of interfacial capillary waves the rate of pressure decrease is substantial. The results show that the vapour condensation rate with respect to the diffusive vapour flux at an undisturbed interface, which is a Nusselt number, increases with the square of the wave amplitude that is proportional to the forcing amplitude. A model is developed that expresses the pressure variation in terms of Jacob number, the temperature gradient in the liquid at the interface and the capillary wave motion. This model allows extrapolation of the results to other fluids and configurations.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 30, 2008
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