Sex Roles, Vol. 40, Nos. 7/8, 1999
Masculinity an d Femin inity in Japanese Cu lture:
A Pilot Study
Yoko Sugih ara
an d Em iko Katsu rada
Miyaz aki In ternatio n al College
This study exam ined masculin ity an d femin inity in Japan ese cu lture. Tw o
e college students (m ale 5 104; fem ale 5 161) took the
ersion of the B em Sex Role In
entory (BSRI) with pertin en t
dem ographic questions. Subjects were all Japan ese an d no other races w ere
inclu ded. The results sh owed no sign i® can t differen ce between Jap an ese m ale
college studen ts an d Jap an ese fem ale co llege studen ts on both the Mascu lin ity
and Fem in in ity scale of the BSRI. It was also found that both m ale an d
female Jap an ese co llege studen ts scored high er on the Fem in inity scale than
on the Mascu lin ity scale o f the B SRI. A con® rm atory factor an alysis also
supported that Bem ’s gender ro le m odel did not ® t the data co llected in
Jap an. Th e lim itatio ns an d im plicatio ns of the study are also discussed .
INTR ODU CTION
Culture de ® ne s gende r role s. In all culture s, biological se x is not the
only factor to de ® ne be ing male or being fe male. Socie tal value s and e xpe c-
tations pe rpe tuate ge nde r role stere otype s in a culture , and mandate males
to be ``masculine ’ ’ and female s to be ``fe minine .’ ’ Ste re otype s of ge nde r
role s create d by a culture gove rn our way of life throughout our existe nce .
The se ste re otype s vary among diffe rent cultures as we ll as among diffe rent
ethnic groups (Franklin, 1984; Landrine , 1985; Harris, 1994) .
Cross-cultural studie s on gende r role s and ge nde r role ide ology have
been conducte d to inve stigate similaritie s and diffe re nce s among the coun-
trie s. Williams and Best (1990; 1994) discusse d the cross-cultural variations
To who m corre spondence should be addre sse d at Miyazaki International College , 1405 Kano
Kiyotak e, Miyazaki, Japan 889-1605; e-mail: ysugihara@miya zaki-mic.ac.j p.
0360-0025/99 /040 0-063 5$ 16.00 /0
1999 Ple num Publishing Corpo rat ion