MAIN TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SLIDE-GATE SYSTEMS
V. A. Kononov,
N. V. Kononov,
and V. P. Vasilenko
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 4, April 2011.
Original article submitted March 3, 2011.
This article examines the three stages in the development of slide-gate systems. The modern slide gate is char
acterized by the presence of elastic elements and reliable fastening of the plates. Different methods are dis
cussed for securing the refractory plates in the carriage of the slide gate. Reliable operation of the gate is pro
vided by the drive and auxiliary elements designed with allowance for the specific features of the casting of
metal with the use of slide gates. Hydraulic drives have proven to be the most effective drives in Russia and
abroad. The article also discusses the shapes of refractory slide-gate plates that help reduce crack propagation
and make the plates more reliable in service. The latest generation of slide-gate plates is now in wide use,
these plates being made with carbon-based, oxygen-free, or cermet binders.
Keywords: slide-gate system; hydraulic system; slide gate; corundum-carbon plate; cermet binder.
A slide-gate system is a complex of production equip-
ment, auxiliary equipment and refractory elements that al-
lows metal to be cast through a slide gate. The system in-
cludes slide gates for steel-pouring ladles and tundishes, a
drive mechanism and feed devices, and auxiliary equipment
and materials (molds, mortars, fillers, etc.). The introduction
of slide-gate systems has been characterized by three stages
First Generation of Slide-Gate Systems (1965 – 1980)
The refractory systems of this generation allowed the
casting of just a single heat . The slide gate — a massive
structure weighing 500 – 1000 kg — was made in auxiliary
shops. The gate designs were of the “rigid” type and the
plates comprising the gate were pressed against one another
by bolts. The plates were installed in the gate with the use of
a mortar. They were serviced in special shops, and it was
necessary to maintain a large stock of reserve gates. The ser
vice life of a gate was 70 – 100 heats. It took more than 2 h
to replace the refractories in the casting unit. Each metallur
gical plant developed its own design of drive (hydraulic,
pneumatic, or electrical) without regard for the details of the
casting operation itself.
The characteristic features of the plates used for the first
generation of slide gates were as follows:
– the use of plate materials with a single-component
composition based on fused or sintered periclase, mullite, co-
rundum, zircon, or other material;
– the use of unconcentrated raw materials;
– the use of a ceramic binder;
– partial alloying of the plate material with refractory
oxides to improve certain properties (Cr
was used to re-
duce the wettability of the surface of the metal, ZrO
used to improve heat resistance, etc.);
– impregnation of the plates with carbon-bearing liquids
(coal-tar pitch, liquid bakelite, etc.);
– the use of a coarse porous structure in which 70 – 75%
of the pores were 20 – 30 mm in size and 20 – 25% were
smaller than 1 mm; the presence of individual pores with a
size in the range 40 – 70 mm contributed to significant wear
of the plates;
– the absence of metal casings and the use of a system of
mortars to join the refractories together.
Most of the plates in the first-generation slide gates had
the form of an ellipse or a rectangle with beveled corners.
Such plates are still being produced by the combine
“Magnezit,” which makes composite periclase-based plates
of type PSP-95.
Second-Generation Slide-Gate Systems
The refractories used in slide gates of the second genera
tion could last 2 – 3 heats. The slide gates were of the “book”
design, which made it possible to replace the refractories di
rectly on the ladle. Spring-opposed elements which were
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 52, No. 2, July, 2011
1083-4877/11/05202-0118 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
From materials of the International Conference of Refractory
Specialists and Metallurgists (March 31 – April 1, 2011, Moscow).
”Shiber” Company, Moscow, Russia.